Items filtered by date: Sunday, 01 October 2017

 

Woldeberhan, 23, was born and brought up in Tigray State in Northern Ethiopia. In 2014, he graduated with B.A Degree in Animal Science from Debremarkos University with a great distinction. After receiving his Degree, he returned back to his home village to pursue his professional career - animal husbandry. He started the task with two cows, estimated about 24 thousand Birr. Currently, he has about 18 cows and a total capital of 45 thousand Birr.

In Addition to this, Woldeberhan is engaged in farming on two hectares of land. He uses power generator for irrigation to cultivate cabbage, onion, potato, maize, and apple. His income is now increasing from the sale of about 230 quintals per term. But his major challenge is the inconsistency and unpredictability of rains coming in his village. Sometimes, the rain comes rarely in few drops, and the other time huge flood attacks his crops. This is because the existence of varied climatic conditions which affect the right path of development in the agriculture sector.

Apart from this, Woldeberhan said that such inconsistent climate conditions also poses health hazard. During the aforementioned fluctuations, it mainly threatens respiratory organs due to the exchange of heat and cold weather. It also damages crops and crates hotbeds for bacterial production. This shows that climate and health are interrelated and pressing issues in human life.

Of course, climate change could not be the major obstacle for the development of Ethiopian livestock resources. As the country has abundant livestock resources, it has to develop a mechanism to combat the impacts of climate change.

The national annual report shows that about 12% of the cattle, 2.8% of goat and 30% of camel population are kept for milk production. Annual milk production is estimated at 2.8 billion liter from cattle and 165.12 million liter from camels. The dairy sector constituted about 13.7% of the total agricultural production and 39.4% of the total livestock production in 2011.

Although, the country has a large potential for milk production,in fully exploiting it, the country still lags behind even relative to other African countries. For example, in 2011, the value of total milk production was USD 1.1 million compared with USD 1.22 million for Kenya, which has a total cattle herd of only 34% of that of Ethiopia. Consumption of milk is also low compared to the African and world averages.

There is ample opportunity to improve the sector. This is even more appealing given the considerable potential of dairy production in creating income-generation opportunities and its further contribution in improving human nutrition, particularly for women and children.

Smallholder farmers in the highlands produce fresh milk and processed products such as butter and local cheese (ayib). In the rural areas, fresh milk is used for household consumption. Processing into butter it could be sold in near or far away markets. Of these, butter dominates dairy marketing and the transaction in the form of raw milk is limited to the surroundings of major urban centers. Thus, dairy development is recognized as having a commercial potential.

About 600 gm of butter is produced from 10 liters of milk from local cows. This means about 16.5 liters of milk is required to produce 1 kg of butter.

To do this, temperature and acidity of the sour milk are decisive. If it is too cold, butter formation is delayed and the grains become small and difficult to handle. If the temperature is too high, the yield of butter is reduced because a large proportion of the fat remains in the buttermilk, and the butter will be spongy and of poor quality. Sour milk should be churned between 10 and 12°C in the hot season and between 14 and 17°C in the cold season. This also implies that climate change has a role either in improving or damaging agricultural and food particles unless properly managed.

In fact, the traditional method is time consuming and less efficient. To address this challenge, improved churn was developed and introduced by the International Livestock Centre for Africa (ILCA). The technology is a simple, low cost agitator that could be assembled inside the churn.

In general, the traditional butter processing starts with aging/fermentation of the milk, while the modern processing starts with separation of the milk into cream and skim milk.

With regard to milk productivity, researches indicated that average milk yield of local cows was 1.75 liter/day over a lactation period of 190 days. The national average of daily milk yield of a local cow is 1.32 liter with a lactation period of 180 days. The estimated daily average milk yield for an improved dairy cow is 7 liters with a lactation period of 242 days.

Fresh butter produced by the cooperatives is sold directly to consumers in bulk or in simple packages. Cooperatives which own refrigerators and/or freezers store the butter. Processing of traditional butter is an integral part of farm activities at household level. Unless it is preserved in recommendable air conditions, the accumulated butter and milk products will be a cause for health related problems.

At the time of butter marketing, butter producers use cups, jugs or other local containers to transport their product to the market on foot. Women take the leading role in the production and marketing of butter. Most producers sell their butter soon after production. If left unchecked due to the impact of climate change, the butter will be contaminated and became dangerous for human health.

As long as the butter handling process is done with proper sanitation and the containers are well fumigated, the butter could stay for about a month without losing its quality.

The use of improved and modern packages for traditional butter is not common in most rural areas, whereby butter is wrapped with leaves of castor bean, banana, or false banana and sold in the local markets. In some areas, false banana leaves are used to wrap the butter supplied to the local markets. Butter made from fresh cream, sold by cooperatives and private processors, is usually sold in plastic bags. Such kind of preservation will help the butter safe from spoilage.

The demand for butter depends on various factors including season of the year, fasting, holidays, wedding season and availability of cash crops. Since demand and supply of butter increases or decreases depending on the months of the year, most price fluctuations are seasonal. The seasonal price variation is linked to the volume of supply and demand. Butter supply is high in all areas during and immediately after the rainy season because of availability of green fodder and water.

In contrast, in the dry season, the volume of butter supply usually declines in almost all rural and urban areas because of lack of green fodder and water supply. Accordingly, price of butter is usually relatively lower during the rainy season and increases during the dry season.

As most of butter productions made in rural areas are processed from raw milk, heating technologies are important in the processing methods to reduce bacterial spoilage that causes illness and long term diseases.

In sum, climate change is not limited in this particular area, it is happening on a global scale. All nations felt the impacts of extreme weather events, changing weather patterns, and changes in the climate system.

Climate change has conventionally been regarded as an environmental issue. Though the growing recognition of its implications across various sectors such as agriculture, food security, infrastructure, health and transport, it is now being considered as a much broader issue of rights and developments.

This is particularly true for African farmers, whose income is expected to face high vulnerability due to their dependence on rain-fed agriculture system. Addressing the issue of climate change and health is demanding a coordinated action, not only from the environmental sector, but also across various sectors at local, national and international levels.

As part of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), no one should be left behind in terms of securing public health and maintaining food security, not to fall at risk.

 

BY ZELALEM GIRMA

 

 

Published in Society
Sunday, 01 October 2017 21:22

Ethiopia film industry at infant stage

Visual effects in world film industry

 

The westerners are still in position of veto power and prove core players by the virtue of having rhetoric ability through means of motion pictures, visual arts and artistic features. Observably, the westerners, especially, the well-advanced ones, have been controlling the political atmosphere as these nations have imminent capabilities in the Film Industry and literary skills. Obviously, the aforementioned people have enrolled the global politics in a way exerting maximum effort for the development of literary arts. The arts including film industry and publishing productions.

These nations are considered as world power entities because of having influential role through both written and visual artistic elements in order to shape the global mindset so as to achieve the goals and political interests of powerful nations. Historians have also recorded how the westerns have scaled up the platform of civilization and prosperity.

According to the historians, the art industries have undeniable effect for multi-faceted development. Mostly, the given nations have been sifting, producing and disseminating artistic elements throughout the globe. As a result, the advanced nations have given due attention for enhancement of the film industry.

The artistic elements serve as vehicles to monopolize the world market, dominate political scenarios,wield social influences and bring spontaneous paradigm shifts. Giant film and publishing industries have been confiscated in the hand of the nations. These countries have climbed in the ladder of veto power; historically, they had played overwhelming role in terms of propagating the world to revolve around in the interest of the well- grounded and founded societies.

There is a claim that such nations used the artistic elements as spur to colonization, neo-colonization and polarization. For instance, Nazis regime conquered most of western countries, Africa and Asia states in such a way agitating the antagonized societies to be enemies of own states through transmitting rhetoric speeches, propaganda messages and unreliable information through visual effects and traditional mainstream media.

Currently, especially, Hollywood and Bollywood are best instances in controlling the film and publishing industries across the globe. The hollywood film story-telling trends have reminded in the mind set of the global citizen. Hollywood has been so called the millstone for US civilization and world politics.

And it plays as inevitable impact to handle the international power zone easily. Moreover, the Hollywood has generated great deals of revenue from the visual products which customize the world market. And it has persuasive role in imposing the US policy in the entire world in such a way that distributing visual and literary arts.

The Bollywood has also gone forward in the stage of world film competition. In contrary to the Hollywood, the Bollywood has been presenting the spot stories based on passionate infotainments story telling. As a matter of fact, it has also its own drawbacks in producing literary arts using visual effects.

In this regard, on behalf of China Embassy in Ethiopia, the China Film Group Corporation has presented film exhibition here in Addis this month. The Cooperation is one of the pilot units in China’s structural reform of cultural enterprise. It is established within the former China Motion Picture, Bejing Film and Children Film Studios as well as China Film Co-Production, China Film Equipment Corporations and Satellite Channel Programming Center, Beijing Film Developing and Video Technology, Huayun Film and Video Factories.

CFGC holds 93 percent shares of China film and has been engaged in policy-based and public welfare businesses including, import of foreign films and approval of project films by joint ventures as well as release and projection of films in rural areas.

The corporation has selected six films for the Ethiopian audiences which show improvement of the Chinese film production and cinematic techniques. The film entitled the Ghouls, My Lucky Star, Flying Swords of Dragon Gate, the Taking of Tiger Mountain, Monkey King: Hero is Back and Who Am I?.

Charge D’affaires of the Chinese Embassy in Ethiopia, Liu Tao said film serves as a unique window that shows the world a given country’s culture and developmental achievements. The films will demonstrate to the audiences with a fresh and depth understanding of the China history, the development, progress and the mindset of Chinese people.

According to the opening ceremony report, through the film exhibition, the local audiences will learn more about Chinese traditional cultures, modern society and Chinese people’s inner lives. Liu Tao stated that the six well-selected films are expected to play irreplaceable and active roles in strengthening dialogues among different countries, nations and cultures.

The paper remarked that under the framework of the belt and road initiatives, China and Africa have made all-round and mutual cooperation in many fields, such as humanities and art. And joint efforts will be made with Africa for the promotion of the development and diversity of global films.

To sum up, here is one of the six films entitled Who Am I? The film is all about three scientists who found a kind of mysteries and precious sediment in the soil of African continent, never seen before. These scientists formed a special operation group by CIA and composed of 11 special forces drawn from specific countries. However, a traitor in the group wanted to take the possession of the marvel gemstone.

Hence, the traitor ordered the pilot responsible for reception to create an air crash to murder others and disguise the guilt of himself in despoiling the given element. Except the Jack, all other members of the group passed away. He was saved by a local resident but lost memory due to the violent collision in the air crash. In order to find out himself, jack went back to New York.

 

BY MEHARI BEYENE

 

 

Published in Art-Culture
Sunday, 01 October 2017 21:19

That is the way the ball bounces

Martha was born and raised in one of the rural areas of Ethiopia. She was leading a happy life until the time her father, Ato Bogale, passed away this life because of a natural cause. She was living under the same roof with her parents. She was the only child in the family. Hence, everyone took care of her. As the apple of her parents’ eyes, she was the happiest person in the world. Although she was not born with a silver spoon in her mouth, her parents were constantly fulfilling anything she wanted. Everything was at her parents’ doorstep. They spent money with no regard. After school, she used to support her father in the farming activities and her mother in household chores. Thus, her parents showered her with pieces of advice and blessings all the time. If they forgot to do so as a result of the pressure of work or other related aspects, uncontrollably she cried her eyes out.

She was familiar with the nuts and bolts of life though she did not know what the future holds in store. Her parents advised her to be always on the right track with the purpose of making her future bread buttered well apart from supporting her parents and her country as a physician, she aspired to study down the road. She was constantly dreaming of becoming a medical doctor. In fact, all her neighbors tapped her on the back. All of a sudden, if her parents did not feel themselves, she liked making a promise that she would diagnosis them when she grew up and studied medicine. Whenever they heard such pledges they laughed till their sides shook. If somebody grew to be sick in her neighborhoods, she assured them she would examine them when she grew to be a medical doctor in the future.

More often than not, if Martha’s neighbors did not feel themselves, she ended up saying, “Do not be concerned. Everything would be fine within the shortest time possible. When I grew up, I will take care of you seeing that I am going to make a medical doctor in the future. You should as well wait until my dream becomes a reality. When I become a physician in the future, I will wipe out all sorts of diseases found in our area once and for all.”

All her neighbors liked affectionately and mockingly calling her “The little doctor!”

An old man who liked her most bought to her a toy and children's stethoscope.

In spite of the fact that Martha’s father produced a lot of yields every so often, they were leading a hand to mouth life. Life was an uphill battle for them. The breadwinner of the family, the father, was struggling day in and day out to make ends meet as he was putting up for sale his yields cheaply for businesspersons. As the father spent most of his time during the Derg regime, he could not earn enough amount of money in the farming sector. Martha always asked her dad why he could not grow to be rich working as a farmer for such a long time.

“My dear! During the Derg regime as everything was as cheap as smile, I used to sell the whole thing cheaply. Everything was very cheap. All our efforts were constantly going for nothing. Nobody was caring for us as the Derg regime was pouring cold water on everything we did. Life was not that easy at that time without any exaggeration. I was simply engaging myself in the farming activities for the sake of our daily bread. Everything was considered as a waste of time and energy. Simply put, we were a laughing stock. As farmers, we did not get respect. Our wealth was dwindling by the day.”

“What about during the incumbent?” asked Martha feeling pity for her dad.

“The instant the incumbent came into power, our journey got crowned with success. We all turned out to be very infinitely happy as the focus of the incumbent grew to be on Ethiopian farmers. We did not expect that the incumbent would topple the Derg regime and harvest the fruit of success shortly. We were infinitely happy. If truth be told, we are really very lucky to be in the hands of the incumbent. Therefore, we are putting up for sale our yields with best price of all time.”

“How is your income at this point in time?” asked the girl joyfully.

“When you were a little child, we were living in a small thatched-roof hut. There were drips from the roof particularly during rainy seasons. We had nowhere to retreat from the drip. We sometimes made an effort to cover the roof with corrugated iron sheet but in vain. But at this point in time, everything is at doorstep. We have managed to change our hatch-roofed hut to corrugated-iron-sheets roofed villa apart from putting up for sale various fruits and vegetables with fair price for consumers. More to the point, we have adequate amount of money and that is why you are spending money with no regard. There are also adequate schools in our areas,” answered the father.

“How about during the past regime? ”asked Martha.

“During the Derg regime, there was no adequate amount of primary and secondary schools in our area. We used to trek five to six hours a day to attend classes. Even worse, we were learning in uncomfortable schools. We passed through many twists and turns for the love of learning though we did not know what our last would be. To our surprise, most of us ended up dropouts following the long distance walk over and over again. But, during the incumbent everything is at one's doorstep. As one can get a school close by, one can learn in any school based on one's choice. Most students who spent more than twelve years in schools ended up idlers for the reason that there were only finger counted universities across the country. No government official cared about the effectiveness of the education system. Nobody as well cared about the distances students were forced to cover on daily basis. In light of these tragic scenarios, you are very lucky in many aspects of life. In present day Ethiopia, it is not also hard to get hospitals nearby.”

Martha was leading a comfortable life following the achievement of her father, the breadwinner of the family.

Some years later, the father, grew to be bedridden. Everybody felt pity for him given his good deeds. After a long struggle and fight, the father closed his eyes never to open them again. In due course, he laid to rest. Thousands of people attended the funeral ceremony of Martha’s father for the reason that he was a man with a heart of gold. Everything was falling from the frying pan into the fire .

She was forced to spend her time with her mother, who was very sick and weak. She did not have anything for their daily bread. The mother always cried her eyes out for she did not have anything for the daughter’s daily bread. Life proved a challenge for them. She made all she could to solve the problem but in vain. There was no stone she left unturned to rescue her parents. They were constantly selling their cattle. After a long fight with her thoughts, she made up her mind to go abroad all of a sudden.

They did not have anybody they could call their own. When they ran out of money, they fell in to trouble. Nobody was around to pull them out of the problem, shackling their hands and feet. Martha did not dare plough their farmland given that she did not know the inside out of the farming activities. Earning their daily bread turned out to be easier said than done. When she was at a loss what to do, she came up with various mechanisms despite she did not know whether her efforts would bear fruit or go for nothing. Her last option was going abroad through brokers putting on the market her parents’ cattle.

At long last, she headed straight to Saudi Arabia and set in motion working as a housemaid in a Norwegian family there. The entire family,she joined, felt affection for Martha following her good manner. Every month she made a point sending some amount of money to her mother.

One fine day, one of the boys,where she works, fell madly in love with Martha. Despite the family was not happy at the beginning, they changed their mind as they went along. In fact, her boyfriend, Abraham, knew a lot about Ethiopia as he read many things written about Ethiopia. Moreover, he heard from her the fact that Ethiopia has turned one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Day in day out, he began dreaming of visiting Ethiopia.

A hard working student, attending distance education, Martha earned her bachelor degree in Management and started working in Norwegian embassy in Saudi. After some years they began living under the same roof as husband and wife. They had three daughters. In the fullness of time, they made up their mind to come to Ethiopia. They did not know when they had to come to and visit the various tourist attraction sites positioned in every part of the country for the most part the historic sites of Ethiopia.

After they got everything ready, they came to Ethiopia on the eve of Meskel, the celebration of the finding of the true cross. The next day, when they visited the different parts of the capital boasting of concrete jungles and road networks akin nerve centers, they could not believe their eyes. They were taken by surprise.

“I never expected that Ethiopia is the jewel on the crown of the continent. It exhibits a splendor almost bordering to that of Europe's. You have everything here. The infrastructure development of the country is unique. The people are very friendly and hospitable. Everybody accords you a cordial welcome. I did not know that Ethiopia is the cradle of mankind at all. It never occurred to me Ethiopia has a lot of allurements of tangible and intangible heritages. We are really happy to be here.”

Late in the afternoon, they headed straight to Meskel Square to involve themselves in the celebration of the finding of the true cross. When they arrived at the square, they all got bewildered by what they saw. Irrespective of sex, age, political affiliation, ethnicity and what have you, people in droves were flooding the Meskel Square. From head to foot, everybody was decorated in white traditional clothes. Everybody was dressed to kill. The guests were fully immersed in the ceremony. Priests,deacons and Sunday school youths were presenting songs. The bishop was preaching and blessing the gathering. An elephantine bonfire was set aglow. The ceremony was constantly winning the hearts and minds of everyone with no trouble. They fell in love with the celebration of the finding of the truth cross within the shortest time possible. Slowly but surely, they visited the historical sites of Ethiopia found in every nook and cranny of the country and got themselves ready to inform what they knew about the country when they returned to their motherland.

“Everybody should really visit the different tourist attraction of the country. The Ethiopian government should as well do more to give clear picture of Ethiopia to the other parts of the world so that the country would secure a large amount of money from touristic spots positioned across the country,” said Abraham happily and remorsefully.

Martha bought new residential houses for her mother as well as her old neighbors in the capital Addis Ababa who used to call her “The little doctor”

She as well opened an orphan center for orphan children in the heart of Addis Ababa. All of them gradually started leading a good life.”

 

BY ADDISALEM MULAT

Published in Art-Culture
Sunday, 01 October 2017 20:35

Effective enviroment stewardship

“The Sahara desert could also have turned green if a similar measure was applied as Tigray's approach in greenery and land restoration, which made the region earn first place in Future Policy Gold Award of 2017 beating 26 other nominated policies to the prize,” says some sources. This seems overly exaggerated .But if one knows how Tigary had been suffering from dryness and was one of Ethiopian states most affected by recurrent drought and food security problems for centuries, one could suggest the same.

“Ethiopia's Tigray state has showcased that restoration of a degraded-land could be a reality. The model flickers hope for other African countries to follow suit,”Alexandra Wandel, Director of The World Future Council (WFC) said on her statement at the thirteenth session of the parties of the United Nations Convention To Combat Desertification UNCCD that took place in Ordos, China on September.

“ The state's being winner of the award is sending a strong and enthusing message. The success story shows how a small state in a climate vulnerable country can find a smart and highly effective way to successfully address global challenges. This is placing Ethiopia firmly on the map as an environmental leader,” she added .

The Future Policy Award is also known as “Oscar for Best Policies” U.N.-backed award for the world’s best policies to combat desertification and improve fertility of dry lands. It focuses on one world threat that will impact future generations. Ethiopia’s Tigray Region has succeed to implement and put in to action world’s best policies that combat desertification and land degradation that enabled to boost millions of people’s ability to grow food by applying a major project with unique collective action, voluntary labor and involvement of youths. The people of Tigray are resuscitating land on a massive scale. Ethiopia's Tigray's gold medal winner success can be a leading model .It could inspire generations to follow same approach to pass down green land for generations to come.

Approached by The Ethiopian Herald, Kiros Bitew, Vice President and Head Bureau of Agriculture and Rural Development of National Regional State of Tigray attributed the secret behind Tigray's success in keeping and nurturing natural resource to Mass Mobilization Campaigns that promote the use of voluntary labor to create productive assets. He also ascribed the success to the strong organizational chemistry of the local people of Tigray. “They devote themselves to physical and biological conservation and restoration works as well as reforestation activities. Men,women and youths,over 15, had moved at least 90 million tonnes of soil and rock by hand to restore denuded lands extending over 1million hectares”

“The people of Tigary has been working passionately with their bare hands. They have managed to render the state green. It was undergoing degradation for centuries. The Tigray state of Ethiopia is now greener than it has ever been during the last 145 years,” He added

“For over three decades—period of fierce struggle— stripped of its green mantle Tigray's land had been naked and it was cutting a deplorable image. It was a place that appeared disagreeable to inhabit. Also Tigray was challenged by famine repeatedly and the people were suffering. People dependent on agriculture were challenged to live or not to live on their land .Such mobilization is not seen less than the struggle waged to overthrow the Derg regime from start to finish. The incumbent intends to root out poverty from the whole country once and for all mobilizing the public for action.”

“Various measures and specific polices were brought into play to respond to the state's food security and agricultural productivity problems based on rehabilitation, conservation development of natural resources and people's participation such as Conservation-Based-Agricultural-Development-Led-Industrialization ADLI strategy, which focuses on the conservation of natural resources . It emphasizes people's participation as the underlying principles for agricultural development.”

Tigray’s ADLI to improve agricultural productivity and promote food security include agricultural extension, training and research, agricultural export promotion,Food Security Programme, Productive Safety Net Programme, Voluntary Resettlement Programme. To make farmers acquire competencies in production and marketing,

According to a statement from United Nations Convention To Combat Desertification UNCCD and the World Future Council Tigray state's ADLI has practically increased the number and education level of Development Agents through providing extensive technical, vocational education and training in agriculture and established Farmers Training Centres to scale improved agricultural technologies and give adequate services at a closer reach.

As a result, erosion has decreased significantly, groundwater levels are recharged, and the uptake of sustainable agricultural practices made a significant contribution to food self-sufficiency and economic growth. Ethiopia’s Tigray state has, since 1991, managed to improve soil and water conservation, and fenced off 1.2 million hectares of land to allow plants to regrow.In addition to the policies, The Tigray state has mobilized villagers to volunteer in building terraces, irrigation projects, build stone walls on mountains and hillsides, and other projects.

According to Kiros, the effective mobilization of local farmers was a key success factor and is a cost effective way to enhance welfare and sustainable land managements.

“Local Farmers have actively participated in effective ways of reforesting the arid land and building hundreds of large and medium dams. As as result, the volume of groundwater has risen,soil erosion is downsized and people's ability to grow food and gain an income has improved. This effective strategies in environment protection could be exemplary to fight out hunger-related problems from the continent. If such successful approaches in greenery and afforestation have been applied in other states too, there would be no food-shortage news regarding Ethiopia in the future” he concluded .

The UNCCD Ultimately recommend that if it could be tested in other countries,Tigray’s approach provides an integrated landscape management model for the restoration of sub-Saharan African dry lands.

 

BY FASICA BERHANE

 

 

Published in Society

Industrial parks have been around for a hundred years. In a 1999 article entitled “industrial parks: principles and practice,” Caj O. Falcke (Ph.D.) stated that the concept of industrial parks emerged in the industrialized countries a century back, primarily as a means to promote and manage industrial development and to provide cost effective infrastructure and communal services. The article states that it took rather long to really catch on but since the 1970s, there has been a massive increase in the number of parks worldwide, especially in the newly industrializing countries. The article states that there were more than 12,000 industrial parks in the world in 1999.

Mere numbers aside, one of the recent success stories that integrated the construction of industrial parks into its adoption of market economy is China. So, let’s take a closer look at the role of industrial parks in China’s rise to the summit of manufacturing in the world.

The Spring 2008 Prologis Research Bulletin states in an article entitled “China’s Special Economic Zones and National Industrial Parks – Door Openers to Economic Reform:” “China launched its “Open Door” reforms in 1978 as a social experiment — one that was designed to test the efficacy of market-oriented economic reforms, but to do so within a controlled environment.”

The article goes on to explain that China’s economic transformation was based on the classic prescription for growth — thrift, investment, industriousness, foreign trade, shifting from agriculture to manufacturing, and a willingness to adopt the best practices employed by the world’s industrial leaders. It then claims that the four Asian “tigers” — South Korea, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Singapore — all used variations of these recipes to create their own economic successes. Accordingly, concludes the article: “the People’s Republic of China (PRC) has designed and implemented its own export-led growth strategy with special emphases on open cities and industrial parks.”

Just another third world country marred with poverty and the rest of the package it is accompanied by, China decided to test market-oriented approaches to growth in 1978. Special economic zones and industrial parks were adopted as the laboratories in which these tests would be conducted with the experiment spanning only a few selected sectors. Accordingly, China designated four coastal cities as “open” cities and made them into Special Economic Zones (SEZs) enjoying special financial, investment and trade privileges. These SEZs were patterned after the Export Processing Zones that the four Asian “tigers” had employed so successfully in their export-led growth strategies.

The two primary objectives, as stated by the article, were to attract foreign investment into these zones and to kick-start an export-led national growth strategy. The article states: “these experimental reforms proved to be immensely successful, and the State Council subsequently opened up additional cities and established national industrial parks.” The one thing to note here is that a Special Economic Zone (SEZ) is a whole city or province with special financial, investment and trade privileges while an industrial park is situated on a smaller plot of land earmarked for industry and export trade development along with special tax and other privileges.

With the success in the use of these SEZs and industrial parks, China attained its goals of creating jobs, improving the standard of living and promoting the transfer of technological knowledge. The 2008 bulletin stated above states that since 2008 when the three decades of the reforms was celebrated, China’s merchandise exports increased 125-fold and its real gross domestic product (GDP) has grown nearly 15-fold. In 2007 only, China’s incremental growth in real GDP actually exceeded its entire real GDP in 1979. It goes on to state that the 54 industrial parks accounted for substantial shares of China’s overall economic activity contributing for 5% of total GDP, 15% of exports, and 22% of total DFI inflows. The article then concludes: “China’s SEZs and national industrial parks have proven to be powerful engines of growth and deserve much of the credit for China’s economic transformation.”

The implications of these industrial parks for employment creation, provision of housing and physical infrastructure, education, health and social services, and pollution control are staggering. The 1999 article entitled “industrial parks: principles and practice,” Caj O. Falcke (Ph.D.) states:

The Large-scale manufacturing is likely to play only a limited role in providing employment. Small and medium-sized firms in manufacturing, services and trade, as well as micro-enterprises will provide most of the jobs. Many of these will benefit greatly in exactly the just mentioned critical variables for success by locating inside a well functioning industrial park: outsourcing based on efficient division of labor is facilitated, economies of scale may be achieved, and productivity thereby is enhanced. By clustering into industrial parks, small, medium and even large enterprises can take advantage of public infrastructures, economize on construction and common facilities, and gain access to nearby skilled labor markets, research and educational facilities and other critical inputs.

The article contends,the challenge for the public as well as the private sector is to facilitate the creation and maintenance of industrial parks that are competitive in the global as well as the local context. It states: “the ability to compete in national, regional as well as international markets is the hallmark of successful private enterprise and the paramount prerequisite for sustainable economic development.”

Access to major markets, infrastructure, cheap skilled labour and incentive packages, the 2008 bulletin states, are among the main reasons that determine the competitiveness of industrial parks in global system.

As has been indicated above, China adopted the use of industrial parks from the successful experience of the Asian “tigers.” Similarly, Ethiopia has embarked on the construction of ten industrial parks throughout the country after considering their importance in the industrialization of states. In analysis of the international competitiveness of these industrial parks, let’s gauge the facts against each of the above stated criteria.

Situated in the horn of Africa, Ethiopia provides an easy access to Africa, the Middle East, Asia and Europe. Therefore, it is ideally located to access the major markets in the world. As a rapidly growing economy, the state of infrastructure in the country is changing tremendously for the better with the industrial parks enjoying the best of electrical, water, telecommunications, roads and other facilities Ethiopia has to offer.

The 2008 bulletin states:

“When China first cracked its “Open Door” in 1980, it lacked virtually all of the basics (not to mention amenities) that modern business enterprises simply take for granted. Absent were such basics as a transparent legal system, the concept of private property, labor markets, banks, foreign exchange markets, and modern infrastructure — including highways, telecommunication facilities, water, waste management, comfortable living quarters, and energy-supply systems. Only the most intrepid foreign enterprises were willing to venture into this uninviting setting.”

With more than a dozen years of rapid development under its belt, it is plausible to think that the present day Ethiopia offers more of some of the amenities stated above than the China of nearly forty years back. Although there have been improvements in infrastructure and work procedures, Ethiopia still needs to keep things rolling to catch up with the demands of today’s businesses. By providing businesses with a fully furnished space to operate from, Ethiopia’s industrial parks compensate for the shortcomings in infrastructure through their connection with ports and close proximity to airports, railway stations, dry ports and universities.

The other point to consider is the availability of cheap skilled labour force. Set to hit the 100 million mark, the majority of the population of Ethiopia is young. This group constitutes the working section of society. Therefore, there is a large availability of labour in the country. Considering the nearly universal enrollment in primary schools and considerable expansion of education at all levels in the past couple of decades, the labour force is more educated than it used to be. The salary level of Ethiopian workers is also generally low. Therefore, Ethiopia has skilled labour that can be employed for low price.

The other gauge deals with incentive packages. Accordingly, Ethiopia provides manufacturers with:

• Zero tax

• Exempted from income tax up to 8 - 10 years

• Exempted from duties & other taxes on imports of machinery, construction materials, spare parts, raw materials & vehicles

• One-stop-shop for government services

• Land lease term: 60-80 years at zero charge for factories & residential quarters

Developers also enjoy equally beneficial incentives that include:

• Exempted from income tax up to 15 years (outside Addis Ababa)

• Exempted from duties & vehicles

• Provision of essential infrastructure, including dedicated power substations

• Land lease term: 60-80 years at zero charge with sub-lease rights

As has been shown above, industrial parks played vital roles in the industrialization and development of the Asian tigers and the leading manufacturer in the world – China. Considering Ethiopia ticks all the rights boxes to host competitive industrial parks at the world stage, the successful completion of the projects would speed up the transformation of the economy to an export-led industrialized one.

 

By Bereket Gebru

 

 

Published in Development

 

Industrial parks have been around for a hundred years. In a 1999 article entitled “industrial parks: principles and practice,” Caj O. Falcke (Ph.D.) stated that the concept of industrial parks emerged in the industrialized countries a century back, primarily as a means to promote and manage industrial development and to provide cost effective infrastructure and communal services. The article states that it took rather long to really catch on but since the 1970s, there has been a massive increase in the number of parks worldwide, especially in the newly industrializing countries. The article states that there were more than 12,000 industrial parks in the world in 1999.

Mere numbers aside, one of the recent success stories that integrated the construction of industrial parks into its adoption of market economy is China. So, let’s take a closer look at the role of industrial parks in China’s rise to the summit of manufacturing in the world.

The Spring 2008 Prologis Research Bulletin states in an article entitled “China’s Special Economic Zones and National Industrial Parks – Door Openers to Economic Reform:” “China launched its “Open Door” reforms in 1978 as a social experiment — one that was designed to test the efficacy of market-oriented economic reforms, but to do so within a controlled environment.”

The article goes on to explain that China’s economic transformation was based on the classic prescription for growth — thrift, investment, industriousness, foreign trade, shifting from agriculture to manufacturing, and a willingness to adopt the best practices employed by the world’s industrial leaders. It then claims that the four Asian “tigers” — South Korea, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Singapore — all used variations of these recipes to create their own economic successes. Accordingly, concludes the article: “the People’s Republic of China (PRC) has designed and implemented its own export-led growth strategy with special emphases on open cities and industrial parks.”

Just another third world country marred with poverty and the rest of the package it is accompanied by, China decided to test market-oriented approaches to growth in 1978. Special economic zones and industrial parks were adopted as the laboratories in which these tests would be conducted with the experiment spanning only a few selected sectors. Accordingly, China designated four coastal cities as “open” cities and made them into Special Economic Zones (SEZs) enjoying special financial, investment and trade privileges. These SEZs were patterned after the Export Processing Zones that the four Asian “tigers” had employed so successfully in their export-led growth strategies.

The two primary objectives, as stated by the article, were to attract foreign investment into these zones and to kick-start an export-led national growth strategy. The article states: “these experimental reforms proved to be immensely successful, and the State Council subsequently opened up additional cities and established national industrial parks.” The one thing to note here is that a Special Economic Zone (SEZ) is a whole city or province with special financial, investment and trade privileges while an industrial park is situated on a smaller plot of land earmarked for industry and export trade development along with special tax and other privileges.

With the success in the use of these SEZs and industrial parks, China attained its goals of creating jobs, improving the standard of living and promoting the transfer of technological knowledge. The 2008 bulletin stated above states that since 2008 when the three decades of the reforms was celebrated, China’s merchandise exports increased 125-fold and its real gross domestic product (GDP) has grown nearly 15-fold. In 2007 only, China’s incremental growth in real GDP actually exceeded its entire real GDP in 1979. It goes on to state that the 54 industrial parks accounted for substantial shares of China’s overall economic activity contributing for 5% of total GDP, 15% of exports, and 22% of total DFI inflows. The article then concludes: “China’s SEZs and national industrial parks have proven to be powerful engines of growth and deserve much of the credit for China’s economic transformation.”

The implications of these industrial parks for employment creation, provision of housing and physical infrastructure, education, health and social services, and pollution control are staggering. The 1999 article entitled “industrial parks: principles and practice,” Caj O. Falcke (Ph.D.) states:

The Large-scale manufacturing is likely to play only a limited role in providing employment. Small and medium-sized firms in manufacturing, services and trade, as well as micro-enterprises will provide most of the jobs. Many of these will benefit greatly in exactly the just mentioned critical variables for success by locating inside a well functioning industrial park: outsourcing based on efficient division of labor is facilitated, economies of scale may be achieved, and productivity thereby is enhanced. By clustering into industrial parks, small, medium and even large enterprises can take advantage of public infrastructures, economize on construction and common facilities, and gain access to nearby skilled labor markets, research and educational facilities and other critical inputs.

The article contends,the challenge for the public as well as the private sector is to facilitate the creation and maintenance of industrial parks that are competitive in the global as well as the local context. It states: “the ability to compete in national, regional as well as international markets is the hallmark of successful private enterprise and the paramount prerequisite for sustainable economic development.”

Access to major markets, infrastructure, cheap skilled labour and incentive packages, the 2008 bulletin states, are among the main reasons that determine the competitiveness of industrial parks in global system.

As has been indicated above, China adopted the use of industrial parks from the successful experience of the Asian “tigers.” Similarly, Ethiopia has embarked on the construction of ten industrial parks throughout the country after considering their importance in the industrialization of states. In analysis of the international competitiveness of these industrial parks, let’s gauge the facts against each of the above stated criteria.

Situated in the horn of Africa, Ethiopia provides an easy access to Africa, the Middle East, Asia and Europe. Therefore, it is ideally located to access the major markets in the world. As a rapidly growing economy, the state of infrastructure in the country is changing tremendously for the better with the industrial parks enjoying the best of electrical, water, telecommunications, roads and other facilities Ethiopia has to offer.

The 2008 bulletin states:

“When China first cracked its “Open Door” in 1980, it lacked virtually all of the basics (not to mention amenities) that modern business enterprises simply take for granted. Absent were such basics as a transparent legal system, the concept of private property, labor markets, banks, foreign exchange markets, and modern infrastructure — including highways, telecommunication facilities, water, waste management, comfortable living quarters, and energy-supply systems. Only the most intrepid foreign enterprises were willing to venture into this uninviting setting.”

With more than a dozen years of rapid development under its belt, it is plausible to think that the present day Ethiopia offers more of some of the amenities stated above than the China of nearly forty years back. Although there have been improvements in infrastructure and work procedures, Ethiopia still needs to keep things rolling to catch up with the demands of today’s businesses. By providing businesses with a fully furnished space to operate from, Ethiopia’s industrial parks compensate for the shortcomings in infrastructure through their connection with ports and close proximity to airports, railway stations, dry ports and universities.

The other point to consider is the availability of cheap skilled labour force. Set to hit the 100 million mark, the majority of the population of Ethiopia is young. This group constitutes the working section of society. Therefore, there is a large availability of labour in the country. Considering the nearly universal enrollment in primary schools and considerable expansion of education at all levels in the past couple of decades, the labour force is more educated than it used to be. The salary level of Ethiopian workers is also generally low. Therefore, Ethiopia has skilled labour that can be employed for low price.

The other gauge deals with incentive packages. Accordingly, Ethiopia provides manufacturers with:

• Zero tax

• Exempted from income tax up to 8 - 10 years

• Exempted from duties & other taxes on imports of machinery, construction materials, spare parts, raw materials & vehicles

• One-stop-shop for government services

• Land lease term: 60-80 years at zero charge for factories & residential quarters

Developers also enjoy equally beneficial incentives that include:

• Exempted from income tax up to 15 years (outside Addis Ababa)

• Exempted from duties & vehicles

• Provision of essential infrastructure, including dedicated power substations

• Land lease term: 60-80 years at zero charge with sub-lease rights

As has been shown above, industrial parks played vital roles in the industrialization and development of the Asian tigers and the leading manufacturer in the world – China. Considering Ethiopia ticks all the rights boxes to host competitive industrial parks at the world stage, the successful completion of the projects would speed up the transformation of the economy to an export-led industrialized one.

 

By Bereket Gebru

 

 

Published in Editorial-View-Point
Sunday, 01 October 2017 20:17

Portraying our hospitality

 

On the global arena, the tourism industry is portraying an upward trajectory from time to time. Reports indicate that it is playing a crucial role for nation's socioeconomic and political uplift. In cognizance of this fact,apart from bolstering the sector's vibrancy in respective countries , different nations are forging ties and back scratching with others. As such, countries conducting researches on the benefits that could accrue from the sector,well organizing information and setting plans have turned beneficiaries. Starting from 1950, the time the tourism sector started resuscitating, the smokeless industry has been displaying unremitting success stories.

It is to be recalled that to buttress the country's tourism industry in a meaningful manner and augment the sociopolitical and economic benefits Ethiopia has established a National Tourism Transformation Agency and Transformation council .

In a peculiar way, as Ethiopia, aside from its natural wonders, has astounding historic and cultural attractions, it is galvanizing the attention of tourists and visitors across the globe. This amalgam of cultures as well is home to numerous nation ,nationalities and peoples . Also, different events accentuate its calendar. Its holidays registered as world heritages, cultural values and relics substantiate this fact. Specially, Meskel ,the finding of the true cross, Ethiopia got registered as world heritages stands out in attracting an influx of tourists. It is not in recent times the event began drawing the global limelight but from the times of yore,the celebration began being marked. Across the nation and across the ages it has been warmly celebrated in religious and cultural manners. It is based on this fact UNESCO, 4 years back,in its 8th round Intangible Heritage Conference ranked it first among such heritages tabled for selection. The Demera festivity which entails the ignition of a bonfire before a gargantuan gathering is the jewel of our festival tourism wealths. Success has crowned the unwavering effort made to make the festival a heritage of humankind. Yet, there is a lot to be desired. One of the advantages of the registration of the heritage in UNESCO's list is the event's activity and the general picture going viral on the Organization's Website thereby drawing additional attention. Exploiting the favorable opportunity the country needs to promote its innumerable attractions. Many media outlets worldwide are pinpointing Ethiopia as one of the must-see countries. Specially in cultural aspects, they are throwing light on its being a sought-after country. Moreover one of the allurements that render Ethiopia a country that galvanizes tourist's attention is its having all sorts of attractions at a place. It is also a country that allows a touristic sojourn at an affordable price. To celebrate World's tourists day and to attend the Meskel's festival many tourists across the globe had come to Ethiopia this week. Efforts were made to extend their sojourn and visit to additional touristic spots across the country. Citizens and all stakeholders had played due role for the peaceful completion of the festival displaying Ethiopia is indeed a hospitable land.

Following the recognition that the country is favorable to a touristic sojourn the number of tourists is snowballing by the year as those who see things firsthand play an ambassadorial role in drawing attention to this wonderland. Many of the tourists were taken aback by the developmental thrust afoot in the country.

There is a call for forestalling any activity that could discourage such touristic influx. There is also a need for displaying all due hospitality to tourists that come to the country traversing different oceans and seas. If there are information gaps there is a call for addressing them. There is a call for churning out skilled and ethical guides too.

 

 

Published in Editorial-View-Point

The Federal Food, Medicine and Health Care Administration and Control Authority (FMHACA) says it is pressing ahead with deepening awareness on the need to contain antimicrobial resistance parallel to monitoring the drug distribution and dispensation in the nation. It as well is dealing punitive measures against wrong doers.

Approached by the Ethiopian Herald, Fozia Mohamed Drug Inspection Directorate Assistance Director with the authority said “The main aim of the authority is caring and creating awareness for people, making the community to get the proper drugs when they need them.”

According to her, researches conducted on close to hundred pharmacies drugs are being dispensed in two ways, with description and without. When drugs are sold without prescription it will have lot of side effects. Some irresponsible pharmacists dispense the drugs without prescription based on guessing hearing from patients about symptoms. This act allow microbial adapt themselves to the drugs changing form. This way the antimicrobial may lose its effectiveness. The wrong trend of dispensing drugs without prescription poses health hazard to patients who find drugs not efficacious. The country will also suffer the repercussions. If things are allowed to go unchecked, the nation could lose its productive task force. Also coming up with new drugs have its own economic impact. Paying money patients may take the drug but can't get a relief.

Measures were taken on three pharmacies found selling drugs without prescription and the authority had taken action against them.

Fozia said that before taking action the authority had conducted a reconnaissance job. Awareness sinking works were made through training, conference and media. In order to sensitize people to buy drugs with prescription, community-oriented movements were held.

Pharmacists were taken aboard the awareness creation work conducted in the nation. The move will continue in a strengthened manner till all professional in the field abide by the dictates of the profession. The punitive measures against pharmacies will be severe to ward of such wrong practices.

According to Fozia, the authority by itself can't care for above 100 millions single alone. So it is working to make the people control the situation. When the community's awareness deepens, the problem will be downsized.

 

BY GENET FEKADE

 

 

Published in National-News

The Addis Ababa Light Railway is becoming more profitable from time to time as it is securing multisectoral benefits apart from providing transport access to the poor, according to the Ethiopian Railway Corporation.

Corporation Communication Head Dereje Tefera told The Ethiopian Herald that the Light Rail addresses key problems such as easing traffic jams, harmonizing affordability and delivering suitable transport service. It is cheaper than local buses and taxis, so it is accessible to the poor.

Dereje also said that over 34 light trains currently provide a transportation service to 170,000 passengers on the average per day, which is gradually increasing from 60,000 in the four directions. As each train has a capacity to carry 286 passengers at a time, over 450,000 Birr has been collected per day from such railway service provisions, Dereje added.

If the railway lines built across north-south and east-west lines were asphalt roads for vehicles, the number of passengers who could travel by such transport lines would not have reached this amount.

Apart from its economic and service provision significance, the benefit of light rails is tremendous for the country that is pursuing green economy utilizing renewable energy that is much better for safe living environment.

In this regard, Climate Change Negotiation Director with the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change Debashu Bayleyegn said that the light rail fosters mobility in the capital and reduces 1.4 million tons of carbon annually. The Light Rail Transit can help to curb the adverse impacts of climate change such as environmental pollution and other communicable diseases, he noted.

According to Chinese Railway Engineering Corporation, in January 2016 ,the system ferried on average 113,500 daily passengers with 153,000 passengers as highest passenger load during a single day.

According to Dereje, there are future plans for railway extensions across the City. The one that has started giving service is the first out of the five phases. The other four phases will be constructed and operated in the future based on the demand that could come from the City Administration.

Apart from extending the existing lines, plans indicate that two new lines could be in the pipeline. The first one will start at St. George's Cathedral, head to Mexico Square to the African Union Headquarters and will terminate at Lebu. The second line will start at Megenagna Roundabout and passes via Bole Airport, Wello Sefer, Saris Market Square and Jommo area and terminates at Lebu; to connect with the new national rail network.

As many agree, transportation in the capital is turning a major problem in terms of service and affordability. The affluent can afford private car, whereas the poor suffer due to shortages of public transport. As connecting towns and villages by railways is vital for development so also the development that serves the poor needs to look beyond private motoring

 

BY ZELALEM GIRMA

 

 

Published in National-News
Sunday, 01 October 2017 19:55

Arresting an Obstetric Fistula

The prevalence rate of an Obstetric Fistula in particular and Fistula in general is plummeting said Yeshineh Demirew, Gynecologist and Fistula Surgeon at Hamlin Fistula Ethiopia.

Yeshineh indicated that considerable amount of women in Ethiopia used to suffer from this complicated disease. Unfolding the idea of an obstetric fistula, the doctor says that it refers to an injury that results from a long-unrelieved-obstructed labor. When a baby is too big or poorly oriented, it may not pass through the pelvis of the mother and may result in obstructed labor.

Approached by the Ethiopian Herald he briefed that the constant pressure of the unborn baby head against the mother’ bony pelvis in unrelieved, prolonged and obstructed labor over many hours or days, leads to the death of the tissue and an abnormal opening between the birth passage and bladder and/or rectum.

He said that following this painful incident, most patients turn out to be incontinent of urine and feces. When the disease reaches at such stages, it can only be cured through a surgery.

The doctor says; “An obstetric fistula could also occur due to failure on the part of professionals. Physicians might unknowingly make a mistake at some point while helping the mother deliver a baby in a hurry.”

As to him, treating patients free of charge, doing prevention activities such as providing training for midwives at Hamlin College of midwives and operating in 5 outreach centers, and rehabilitation center (Joy village) are the pillar activities that Hamlin Fistula Ethiopia provides for its patients.

Apart from the pain that comes along with the disease, patients suffer from the stigma the people attache to it. Victims of the tragedy used to be shunned by the community even by their parents as if they were cursed .As such they used to go through a harrowing psychological problem, he said.

In order to bring out hidden patients, who fear to be out casts, and to sensitize the society on the disease, Hamlin fistula Ethiopia has its ‘Prevention Officers’ in its five outreach health centers that provide awareness deepening training.

Moreover, it gives life skill training for patients on how to communicate with their society and generate income at Joy Village Rehabilitation Cente.,where recuperating women carry out handcraft works.

According to Yeshineh, back in the days, young women were easily vulnerable to Fistula due to early marriage and teenage pregnancy. But now as people are aware of the negative impact of early marriage and causes of Fistula, there is a progressive change.

He said that Hamlin Fistula Ethiopia will continue to treat women who happen to have an obstetric fistula in Hamlin's five outreach health centers at Bahir Dar, Mekelle, Yirgalem, Harar, and Metu Hamlin Fistula Ethiopia.

 

BY BETELHEM BEDLU

 

Published in National-News
Page 1 of 2

Visit Us on Social Media

 

Visitors Counter

0003147143
TodayToday6246
YesterdayYesterday19288
This_WeekThis_Week29286
This_MonthThis_Month100001
All_DaysAll_Days3147143

         The first Ethiopian Locally Developed Ethionux Operating System, that has been under trial since the last 8 years(2007-2015) in Ethiopian Press Agency, Ethiopian News Agency for the past 2 Years & Ethiopian Revenues And Customs Authority for the past 1 Years , has now become fully operational. This website is built up on the operating system of Ethionux.