Ethiopia was once a unitary state divided by various regions or provinces with the central government having all of the grips of exclusive power. There were the so called representatives of the kings or emperors or other central authority who worked to fulfill the desires and orders of the reigning monarch according to his or her liking. The emperor may have his crown council and these advisors may suggest certain policy recommendations based on their perceptions but the ultimate decision was the Emperor’s and whatever was to happen would be decided by the central powerhouse.
Power was hence concentrated in the centre and in most of the cases, in one person or in the hands of a selected few. Besides, it was rarely appealable or reversible. If someone from the provinces or the governorate generals, as it was once known, wanted to present a grievance, a petition or some miscarriage of justice, some request, he or she was supposed to either wait for the day the emperor would pass in that locality and present the petition vociferously, and hope to be noted, heard or travel personally to the capital city and present their case before the throne. They would implore the palace guards to let them in and wait for their turn. This was the accepted norm for years in the judicial process of the nation as we have learned from the chronicles of the various rulers of the country in various epochs.
Decentralization of power was inconceivable and delegation was limited to the routine activity of collection of monies or dues to the rulers by the minor officials in the regions or remote areas to the coffers of the throne.
The first constitution in our country’s history was, in the words of the emperor ‘granted’ to the Ethiopian people back in 1931 when he was ‘generous enough, and acted on his own free will’. He claimed that it would help the country join the family of modern nations. Many observers however noted that it was in fact meant to give a ‘semblance of legality or legitimacy’ to the unfettered powers of the royal family, particularly of the emperor.
Thus a constitution was drafted on the paths of the one promulgated in Japan of the Meiji Dynasty. Japan’s constitution inspired ours as the imperial constitution was considered as a sort of model as Japan was run by a king, albeit with only ceremonial powers. The king did not actually exercise executive powers contrarily to our case.
Some historians did write that such constitution was considered a breakthrough as it was the first of its kind in the country’s history. The intention of introducing a modern constitution that established in clear legal terms the powers of the monarchy was indeed unprecedented. In a way, it wanted to introduce the country to the modern era, to an era of certainty, as country that could now join the big family of states.
However, as it was a new concept and seemed too much forward looking for the tastes of the then lords, it was taken with utmost suspicion by the feudal lords and aristocracy who thought that such document would circumvent their powers and threaten their feuds glorifying instead the powers and prerogatives of the Emperor only. There was in fact a kind of palace struggle as it was often characteristic of Ethiopia’s history. This shows that the power struggle between the emperor on the one hand, and the aristocracy and feudal lords on the other, was not settled and in a way, the emperor tried to settle it using this legal instrument. In the meantime, there were little signs of concern for the plight or destiny of the masses of citizens.
Furthermore, this constitution had little that could be called a ‘limitation’ or delineation of the powers of the Emperor or the authorities in general, because in fact constitutions would be intended to consecrate certain rights and duties of all the branches of government in clearly defined terms while putting certain ‘legal limitations’ to the exercise of certain powers and privileges. It would require transparency and the respect of the rule of law, on particularly every executive body, besides of course the other branches of the state establishment that exercise some sort of authority. This constitution however reflected the opposite idea. It was rather considered a more solid and unshakeable consecration of the powers of the monarch and those of the throne in general, as for instance the provision that considers the person of the emperor ‘sacred and inviolable’. He was made practically above the law. The other provisions even sanctioned the ‘perpetuity’ of the succession to the throne or power limited to the emperor’s exclusive family line, depriving any outsider of the chance to become monarch or ruler.
Obviously, there was little that could be called ‘democratic’ or representative of the people, as there was little space for the exercise of power by the people. No doubt this document with its 55 articles and 7 chapters was just a putting on paper of the powers and prerogatives actually in vigor and legitimize them so that any kind of complaint could be thwarted and suppressed, if necessary.
Then twenty four years later, in 1955 the so called Revised Constitution was promulgated with more provisions and nuances as it appeared there initiated the need to revise the legislation. The revised constitution contained the expansion of certain ideas like for instance the focus on the bicameral nature of the parliament and an invitation for the public to vote for members of the Lower House. The revised constitution was promulgated on the occasion of the Silver Jubilee of the coronation of Emperor Haileselassie and in a way it glorified the monarchy.
The document provides for two chambers, the Lower House or the House of Deputies or the Congress, following in a way the US model, and the Upper House, or the Senate. While the deputies were to be elected by a ‘certain category’ of people among the masses, the senators however were exclusively handpicked by the emperor himself. A seat in the senate was considered as a sort of position of honor given to veterans who had served the country for a longtime and needed to rest or retire with a handsome package of salary and benefits instead of having influence on the way the country was governed or administered. It was often rumored that anyone who constituted potential danger to the authority of the emperor was confined to this institution. In the meantime, little progress was actually to be registered in the day to day life of the millions of masses. The feudal system continued to reign.
Ethiopia remained one of the least developed countries of the world by any standards and its democracy or opening to democracy was to say the least faint and not promising. African countries were fast being decolonized and making progress practically many fields while a situation of immobilizm or status quo was created in our nation. Little development or growth was registered. The plight of the population hardly improved. No wonder as the fast developments taking place in other African countries began to reflect in the students’ movement, a public uproar began to be heard; demonstrations and rallies became the order of the day with the harsh suppression of the regime by its mighty security and military apparatus. The grievances were impossible to contain and eventually revolution erupted.
The very army that was the backbone of the regime gave the final blow to the regime. With a stroke of the pen the Derg regime of a group of military officers that grabbed the reins of power dismissed the historic monarch, and the ancient regime was deposed with the institution of the monarchy officially abolished by a proclamation. A new chapter in the history of Ethiopia dawned.
People thought, especially those who were involved in the public revolt, particularly the intelligentsia that a new era was breaking to the masses of the impoverished Ethiopians with new hopes and new aspirations. The final result of the seventeen year regime of the Derg was however only to result an ordeal of the people. It failed to deliver the promises it made. It failed to bring about substantial change to the plight of the people despite the fact that there were several promises and expectations. A truly socialist state was thought to be established to liberate the people of exploitation and whatever other rhetoric the Derg used.
Indeed, there was lip service for an ideology that was not to the appetite of the people switching from a mainly capitalist or mixed economic structure to a Marxist Leninist stance with the pretext of socialistic principles.
Accordingly, the Workers Party of Ethiopia was founded and the country was to have a people’s democratic republic and a constitution that would sing for a world of proletarians and against any form of bourgeois, feudalistic and aristocratic elements.
Ethiopian constitutional history continued with attempts by this military government to prepare and promulgate several proclamations and decrees including a couple of constitutions or basic legislations that paid tribute to the aspiration of a socialist system of government with power declaredly attributed to the workers. In fact, Article 3 of the so-called People’s Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Constitution of 1987, stated “power belongs to the ‘working people’” and describes as to how this power is exercised. It says it shall be done through the ‘National Shengo’ and the local shengos (a kind of parliamentary assembly) to be made through elections. Article 2 talks about the country being ‘a unitary state’, but it also declares the ‘nationalities’ would live based on equality. Although Article 2 sub article 4 talks about the formation of regional autonomy, the principle of ‘democratic centralism’ and the hierarchy of accountability stating that lower organs are accountable to higher organs did not seem to focus on true decentralization or delegation of power. The unitary state was even more accentuated than ever before and the issue of the diversity of the peoples of Ethiopia was not properly addressed.
This constitution as well did not exactly address the major and fundamental issues of the people and many of the provisions that particularly deal with certain civil liberties such as ‘freedom of association’, ‘freedom of expression’ and ‘freedom of movement’ or ‘freedom of religion’ were clearly either prohibited or violated systematically. They remained confined to the ‘books’.
Then came the inevitable downfall of the Derg and the ascension to power of Ethiopian Peoples Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) led government, which totally changed the political landscape of the nation. This was an event that materialized twenty six years ago.
Travel is a feast by itself with so much comfort of cultural, interpersonal development is just the few things we gain by streaming by going outdoors and out of the usual routine. According to destination experts at Travel agencies, traveling presents escape from the familiar, making one well rounded and better.. The experience of getting in touch with new cultures and languages not only develops our brain activities but also boosts our confidence and what we can do in this world.
Travel to Ethiopia gives you just that and more beyond your expectations. From the never ending refreshing destinations including close to a dozen UNESCO registered stunning global heritages. Ethiopia truly spoils and surprise even seasoned travelers with so much of its delightful hospitality, destinations and mouth-watering cuisines. If you ever questioned your personal value in this world a trip to Ethiopia is the main thing you need. This country makes you accept how important you are with so much of love and hospitality from strangers who soon end up being your lifetime best friends even long after your left the country.
A long or even a simple short exploration to Ethiopia takes you far from the ordinary to an exceptional height of experience. It’s a place of incredible diversity with so much ancient skilful creations that stand strong still in this modern day. The ancient wealth of the country takes you as far back as to the 5th century, proving you that where it all began is in Ethiopia. The incredible varieties of the country’s destinations include nature’s extreme creations offering you an actively bubbling fire lake at Erta Ale from deep 125 meters below sea level and the global hottest destinations colorful landscape of Danakil. It’s a place where you can witness a lake of fire with fire avalanche.
Ethiopia is not short of anything having so much of everything. If you are after exciting travel, trying to create a memory that will last for life time, then here is Ethiopia’s best offers that standout everything you might have in your mind. Crocodiles, hippos, zebras, over 20,000 birds and sociable monkeys are few of the wild lives you see up close. Ethiopia is also home to several ever green refreshing parks to watch giraffes grazing the tall blades of grass, Cape buffalos, lions, giant elephants and leopards work for their daily meal. It is truly a wildlife sanctuary with so much wild animals to see including white-cliff chat, banded-barbet, wattled ibis, black-headed forest Oriole and thick billed Raven, Bushpig, antelope, monkeys and giant forest hog.
Hikers will particularly love Ethiopia, challenging themselves at one of the continent’s tallest green mountains including hiking at Semine Mountain which rival the Colorado’s Grand Canyon. Ethiopia offers daring and enormously rewarding trekking routes. Among the best parts of the country is it’s not short of anything finest. It is over 80 ethnic groups mouthwatering culinary delightful cuisines are not only yummy but also healthy. The country’s exclusive dishes contain vegetables, chicken, serials and meat served in a form of thick stew. It has its own unique breakfast, lunch and dinner specialties offering you plenty of great tastes and countless colorful choices.
After exploring Ethiopia, its destinations and even its coffee ceremony blended from the world’s quality beans will keep you more than energized and satisfied with so much experience and great taste of the organic coffee beans. Ethiopian coffee will make you enjoy coffee in a whole new exciting way. From the cultural ceremony of coffee preparation and serving, it is a social bonding ceremony where so much love fills the rooms of traditional coffee process.
By Eden Sahle
The contribution of the transportation sector in supporting the intended development of the nation is irreplaceable. The sector has played considerable roles for the double digit economic growth Ethiopia scored in the last two decades. Cognizant of its significance, the Ethiopian government has been working tirelessly to transform the sector. In addition to improving land, water and air transportation services, the sector is currently repairing the Bole International Airport Terminal 2 with 345 million dollar. And the number of airports has risen from four to 24 in the last 26 years.
In the recent interview with The Ethiopian Press Agency, Minister of Transport Ahmed Shide said that the sector has experienced considerable improvement since May 28, 1991. “Several road net-workings that can facilitate local transportation system and connect the neighboring countries with the nation have already been constructed in a couple of decades. More than 120,000 kilometer asphalt roads that can connect all the cities in different states of the nation were well established. We have also scored remarkable achievement in the air transportation in connecting all African countries with the other continents,” he stressed.
Interconnecting the nation’s cities, building highways to Djibouti port and other neighboring countries are the highest achievements of the ministry in this fiscal year in addition to constructing a number of airports across the country to enhance air transportation. And the Ethiopian is also aspiring to be the leading airlines in the world through interconnecting Africa with the rest of the world, according the minister.
Setting well organized five-year plans in the road development, the ministry, for more than 20 years, accomplished several activities that have transformed the sector. Moreover, “Through implementing the Universal Road Access Programme, 50,000 kilometer roads that connect districts with Kebeles have been constructed in the last five years. In addition to this, the nation has built its first electric railway, ” the minister added.
The Awash-Mekelle railway transportation project is reaching completion that will be operational within the coming two or three years while the Addis Ababa’s light railway has continued facilitating public transportation services for the society residing in the capital and its surrounding. Thus, the sector is expanding immensely and assisting to speed up the national economy, he said.
“The number of vehicles is increasing; There were less than 20,000 vehicles providing transport services across the country about 20 years ago. But, currently, there are more than 800,000 vehicles in the nation,” he stated.
Since the nation is a home for the population of 100 million, the transport sector plays an indispensable role for its intended development. Realizing this fundamental role, the government has demonstrated relentless effort to establish proper interconnections among the states of the country.
The sector is also playing a promising role through boosting the productivity of farmers and pastoralists along with access to the market. Addressing farmers' demand of market is unthinkable without improving transportation service. Road accessibility is greatly advancing farmers' and pastoralists' productivity. Hence, the sector is playing a dominant role in benefiting not only the urban residents but also the rural population in supplying raw materials and agricultural products.
Minister Ahimed underlined that the roads were constructed with adequate quality. “The capacity of local contractors is also increasing. Since this fiscal year, the road construction projects design has been executed carefully. And the ministry is working effectively to improve its performances,” he said.
Since the holistic development is flourishing in every corner of the nation, the establishment of modern railway that can effectively support the economic growth is very essential. “The Addis railway has been playing considerable in this regard. It has caused the improvement of our economic relations with the neighboring countries like Djibouti in addition to facilitating the export trade. As a result of this, the nation continues to be the destination of the rising Foreign Direct Investment,” said Ahmed.
The prudent policies and strategies that are the fruits of May 28 enabled The Ethiopian Airlines to excel its service provisions. In order to improve the entire performances of the sector, the government first has made huge investment to transform its leadership. At the moment, the sector has more than 80 airplanes and well skilled human-power that can sustain proper and adequate services for the customers, according to the minister.
Generally, the transport sector has been growing to the extent it can efficiently support the growing economy of the nation since the government has been investing in it for more than two decades. This has arranged conducive environment for the Foreign Direct Investment. Thus, any international investor who is capable enough to create job opportunities for the youth is highly encouraged to invest in the nation.
BY TEWODROS KASSA
The practice of public diplomacy in Ethiopia laid incontestable new milestones and many-sided achievements in strategic areas such as multilateral partnership, economic diplomacy, image building and Diaspora development affairs since the last few years. Ethiopia's diplomatic relations with other countries have contributed a lot for regional peace and security as well as for regional and continental integration through development-based and give and take approaches for mutual benefit and win-win outcomes.
This new diplomacy also demonstrated more cooperative partnerships to address common global challenges and proponent people-to-people ties for the creation of a shared destiny in the Horn of Africa and the Nile Basin in particular, and in the continent in general. In the remaining four years of the Second Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP II), the government works to create an enabling environment to strengthen the process of building a democratic state and a developmental political economy.
This will lay a solid foundation for the launch of full diplomatic operations between and among countries. The ex postfacto diplomatic approach helped the country register remarkable economic growth and become a source of peace and stability in the region and Africa.
Regarding the strategic partnership, the government aimed at creating conducive environment to spur Ethiopia's inclusive growth. With its progressive strategic partnerships with other countries, Ethiopia is exploring opportunities and raising its voice about Africans mutual benefits in global arena. In doing so, this strategic partnership has assisted the nation to advance its national and international diplomatic standing and regional influence for co-development, integration and common security.
Indeed, unshakable progress has been made in neighborhood diplomacy, providing increased support to all-round economic integration, and sustainable peace and security in the horn countries.
Successfully shaping full strategic partnership with neighboring countries, with the exception of Eritrea, Ethiopia's public diplomacy has opened up the doors for more cooperation and integrated development in the region. Thus, the Ethio-Djibouti cooperative partnership is exemplary for this enhanced diplomatic activity, realized by the closer links through connectivity and infrastructural development with the primary objective of creating a full-fledged economic integration.
In addition, Ethiopia is also playing a constructive role in the mediation between Sudan and South Sudan conflict through the IGAD framework. Ethiopia has also made sustainable efforts to scale up the Ethio-Sudan partnership to new phase and to encourage shared economic benefits. This has been seen as an encouraging move towards economic integration in the Horn region.
Ethiopian diplomatic outreach was not just restricted to economic issues. Its role is continued in stabilizing and providing support for the birth of peaceful Somalia. Apart from the mutual cooperation with neighboring countries, Ethiopia's diplomacy has become a constructive force to enhance bilateral ties with various African countries through high-level meetings. For example, the Ethiopia's diplomacy has bored fruit on the construction of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam through continuous dialogue, integration and cooperative hydro-diplomacy. It all incorporated a win-win approach on mutual benefits.
With regard to Ethiopia's partnership with the outside world, its diplomatic footprint has been expanded with the opening of embassies across the globe. Ethiopia's engagement with its strategic partners, which include countries from North and South America, Europe, Africa, Middle East and Asian countries among others, has now set the pace for strengthening bilateral ties for more cooperation in various fields, and registered progressive results. Hence, the growth of bilateral relations with strategic partners has brought practical cooperation, mutual benefits, win-win outcomes, cooperative security and mutual development.
Moreover, being the seat of African heads of States and other world organizations, Ethiopia used full advantages from international forums such as the China-Africa, US-Africa, Japan-Africa, India-Africa, Turkey-Africa, Korea-Africa, EU-Africa to advance the shared interests underlining its own national interests. These diplomatic activities enable the country to have a fresh force to work with all nations regarding regional and global development issues.
It is crystal clear that there is still a long way to foster strategic diplomatic partnership with major providers of capital inflow, and technology, knowledge and skill transfers as well as facilitators of business, trade and investment to Ethiopia. Its multilateral diplomacy is also helpful to gain momentum working within regional and international inter-governmental organizations, including the IGAD, the African Union, the European Union (EU), and the United Nations.
In sum, Ethiopia's multilateral relations have moved to a new height, making the voices of Africa heard in various international forums, and shifting the power of the African Union into an important force towards promoting and transforming the development and security of the continent. Above all, Ethiopia's public diplomacy must be further portraying and building its image and reputation as well as displaying its true picture across the world through the use of public diplomacy tools.
Food Medicine and Health Control Authority( FMHACA) urged stakeholders to intensify efforts in reducing the risks of smoking on active and passive smokers.
Marking World No Tobacco Day at national level yesterday, Deputy Director General Dr. Keyredin Redi said the nation needs to meet one of the health goals of SDGs which is to reduce 5 million tobacco consuming citizens by 2030 in Ethiopia alone.
“ In the efforts to protect non smokers ,the authority has been working in concert with judiciaries in a bid to control tobacco through imposing extra taxation, prohibiting promotion and public smoking.”
Ministry of Health Non-Communicable Diseases Program Officer Mussie Gebremichael for his part said about 7 percent of 15-49 aged males consumes tobacco products here.
Apart from working in the areas of psychiatric support and pharmaco-therapy aimed at reducing smoking risks, the ministry needs to increase the number of rehab centers with necessary facilities as a whole,he noted.
WHO Health Promotion and Tobacco control Professional Wassihun Melaku said that his organization has been assisting Ethiopia’s effort in reducing the impact of tobacco through capacity building and financial support.
He said raising public awareness towards health, social and economic crisis of consuming tobacco is the first step to curb this social malice.
As a country that ratified the international tobacco controlling convention, a lot has remained to be done in terms of prohibiting public smoking nationwide .
He also pledged that the support of WHO in this sphere would be continued informs of offering training to health professionals and financing tobacco controlling organization.
The day was observed for 25th and 32nd times at national and international level respectively under theme : “Tobacco- A threat to Development.”
BY YOHANES JEMANEH
Adama City Administration inaugurated Tuesday a 342-million Birr clean water upgrading project.
The Koka-Adama Water Treatment, Distribution and Improvement Project is upgraded to supply 43,000 Cubic Meter clean water to 500, 000 residents from previous capacity of 24, 000 Cubic Meter to 25, 000 people.
Speaking at the inauguration, Oromia State Chief Lemma Megersa said the move is part of the state's plan in making the city a model in terms of infrastructural provision hence to position it as a major conference destination.
Lemma further made clear that more projects aimed to benefit residents are in the pipeline and took the opportunity to call upon residents and pertinent stakeholders to actively participate towards the success of the projects.
City Mayor Adanech Abebie for her part said the city has been toiling to meet the infrastructural demands of residents. Residents of Adama, Wonji and Sire-Robe would benefit from the project, she disclosed.
Forty-nine development projects are underway this fiscal year with a budget of one billion Birr,” she highlighted.
BY FASICA BERHANE
Prime Minister Hailemariam Dessalegn said Public Enterprises have tremendous role in realizing the Second Growth and Transformation Plan (GTPII).
Speaking at a panel discussion with heads of 20 government development agencies yesterday, Hailemariam urged the agencies to intensify efforts in stabilizing market and sustaining the fast economic growth.
“We have been implementing effectively developmental state policy . As a result, a number success stories have been unfolding in this regard.”
According to the Premier, the agencies have irreplaceable roles in boosting the economy and need to be supported to build their capacity in order to contribute more.
He stated that producing skilled human power, building strong financial capability and introducing modern system would help overcoming the existing setbacks of the agencies.
The Prime Minister pointed out that rent seeking tendencies and other malpractices could be alleviated through capacity building trainings and workshops for the leadership.
Public Enterprises Minister Dr. Girma Amente for his part said the capacity building training offered to 1,300 medium and senior officials at Oromia Leadership and Meles Zenawi academies.
Dr. Girma said the participants have discussed strengths and weaknesses of government policies and strategies expressing commitment to scale up the best practices.
“We have gained very good input from the training. Our leaders should be equipped with necessary skills and knowledge so as to enhance product and productivity,’’ he asserted.
The minister urged the leadership to remain vigilant to create modern political economic society through fighting rent seeking, red-tape and other wrongdoings.
BY TSEGAY HAGOS
Criticized for years as the Ethiopian federal system could lead to the disintegration of nations and nationalities, it has proved the reverse over the last 26 years creating cooperative developmental opportunity for all states, argue officials demanding the popularization of system values.
House of Federation Information and Communication Director Gebru Gebresillasie said there have been some confusion about federalism and some contents of the constitution particularly article 39 fearing disintegration. “But logically speaking, one cannot force others into unity with centralized power. That has been a mistake made by the past regimes of the country. Trying to force peoples into unity has led the country into unrest and civil war.”
However, the Ethiopian federalism accommodates diversity with broad democratic and administrative manners. States are given the right to self administration at state level and also have equal and balanced representations in the federal government, he added.
Thus, “As we can see it the country has come a long way with the system and instead of disintegration it has brought strong unity between the nations, nationalities and peoples. And this is due to its cooperative nature. Now the system is a cooperative federalism because it involves all nations in the countries developmental as well as democratic process. ”
Federal and Pastoralist Development Affairs Ministry Federalism Thoughts Director Gezahegn Tilahun says Ethiopia being the only country where the right to secede is constitutionally recognized under its Federal System, unity and trust between its people has been under question mark by certain groups. But granting the right to secession is a brave step that made the federal system unique from other countries. Hence, the major success is that it has won the trust and strengthened unity and brought cooperative development between the nations.
This achievement is realized because the base line and purpose of the federal system is responsive to the multinational and economic issues of the people. As a result, based on equal and healthy competitive ground for growth, the system allows the states utilize local resources, knowledge and innovation while emerging states are encouraged to support others following behind. “Therefore, several towns are emerging fast. The federal government is also providing special support to these emerging states advance their growth.”
However, “Unionist and Separatist ideas have been issues that scholars labeled would be some of the threats to the system. That is because if one inclines to building only unity, the issues of diversity may be forgotten. On the other hand when stressed only on diversity, other national and developmental issues will be at risk. Of course handling both equally is the best way to go along and that is the current reality in Ethiopia. ”
Radicalism and extremism under religious cover, on the other hand are also major issues challenging the Ethiopian federalism says Gezahegn. “These are global issues.
Due to its geopolitical position, where the instability of Somalia and South Sudan created safe heaven for terrorist groups like Alshebab are still threats to the region where Ethiopia is highly vulnerable. Thus, in order to tackle the problems, accelerating the Nations development is one of the exceptional solutions we have to consider to keeping the Federal system effective. On the other hand a lot must be done by religious institutes and leaders,” says Gezahegn.
Ethiopian Inter Religious Council Public Relations and Documentation Directorate Head Mesud Adem for his part says despite the attempts of individuals with hidden agendas , Ethiopians with various religions have lived together for years securing peace, defending the nation from external enemies and supporting each other under the federal system.
Mesud said : “Building the values of peace in this fertile ground, raising awareness for the youth and nurturing the culture of solving problems through discussion need to be the priority of the government, religious leaders and the youth.”
With all its deficiencies, over the years the federal system proven to be enabling factor to facilitate for states for cooperative development. The progress made towards responding to issues of cooperative development would further consolidated if the values of federalism owned by the public.
Changing the diversity to the best of cementing unity with maximizing the mutual benefits of the states is second to none for the federal system. For this, as Gezahegn and Gebru agree, the mentioned threats to the federal system need to be dealt with seriously to realize one economic and political community.
BY HENOK TIBEBU
The recent visit by the Ethiopian delegation led by Prime Minister Hailemariam Dessalegn to China and participation in Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation in Beijing was a potential avenue to promote Ethiopia's investment opportunities and elevating ties with China.
In a forum jointly organized by Foreign Affairs Ministry and Chinese Embassy in Addis Ababa, in connection with the recent Premier visit and the Forum Ministry Asia and Oceania Affairs Director General Tsgaye Kebebew said Primier’s visit to China has enabled the country to promote Ethiopia's investment climate and boost further the cooperation with China.
Tesgaye said the premier had fruitful discussion with Chinese President Xj Jinping, his counterpart Li Keqiang and four Chinese provincial leaders in which he said ‘an opportunity to explore the potential of the two countries’.
The director general said Hailemariam commended the significance of Belt and Road Forum as a good economic stimulant for the global community in general and, Ethiopia and Africa in particular.
Mentioning the railway that link Addis Ababa with Djibouti as an indication,
Premier had expressed the importance of the forum securing benefits from the initiative.
The discussion with his counterpart, premier has deliberated on various economic issues that would further consolidate Ethio-China Ethiopia relation.
According to Tsegaye, both leaders have come to terms to take the relations to new heights through building mutual trust, expanding cooperation and advancing Sino- Africa cooperation.
The event was amicable for the two leaders witnessing the signing of bilateral cooperation agreements covering various areas, he said and adding, they agreed to increase cooperation in the areas of production capacity, human resource development, tourism, aviation and others.
In his discussion with four Chinese provincial leaders, the Premier has encouraged Chinese investors and companies to invest in Ethiopia reaffirming the unreserved support from his government.
Based on the favorable investment conditions in Ethiopia and the financial support given by Belt and Road Forum strong companies, provincial leaders have showed wiliness to encourage Chinese companies to invest in Ethiopia, he said.
Chinese Ambassador to Ethiopia La Yifan said the forum has been an instrument for the premier to meet senior government officials in communicating the mutual concerns and interests of the two countries.
The ambassador said Policy Coordination, Infrastructural Connectivity, Trade, Investment and People to People exchanges were the five pillars of the Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation.
The Forum has created podium to various global leaders, international organizations, and ministers to review the past four years of progress since the initiative has been launched, the ambassador said.
BY LEULSEGED WORKU