Ethics has been living in and between societies around the globe and served as a guide line in every sociocultural and religious aspects of human life. Generations have been built with certain type of ethics that reasonably states what is right or wrong, what is good or bad, what is acceptable or unacceptable for the well being of individuals and their societies.
Fantahun Mengistu and Abebe Kirub on their Research Ethics Guide indicate that even though the existential of ethics begin from childhood, the moral development goes throughout the entire life of an individual. There are general principles of ethics that are acceptable by all members of a society. However, the interpretation, implementation and evaluation of these principles could depend on the personal values and life experiences of every individual, according to them.
On the other hand, ethics is different from law. A person’s action could be legal but unethical or the opposite, which means one may do something ethical but unlawful. Laws are tools that are used to implement the moral values in every level which are widely accepted. Meanwhile, principles of ethics are guidelines, which a certain institute prepares them in order to enable its employees and administrators or management do their jobs based on its major values.
Every socioeconomic, political and scientific activity, which is believed to benefit not only human beings but also all creatures on the planet requires to be undertaken based on certain principles of ethics. The above-mentioned writers strongly believe that, moral values and principles are the only ways to protect the name and dignity of science and technology in this world of competition where many are rushing for fortune and fame.
Scientific researches are meant to bring solutions for natural and man-made problems when they are conducted with passion, strong ethics and knowledge.
According to the Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST), 56 problem solving research projects are under implementation beginning from 2015 and the progress of 16 out of which are under evaluation.
Researchers are given opportunities by the MoST to go through every issue that concerns every society member. And research has to go through ethics.
Recently, the Minister of MoST Dr. Engineer Getahun Mekuria said that the science and research projects are expected to support peoples’ lives. As a result, they must be implemented within the given period of time and budget. This could also be fulfilling one of the research ethics.
The Ministry is working on improving research and innovation, benefiting women and youth, increasing accessibility and competitiveness, enhancing technological transformation and developing local knowledge, upgrading the level of awareness between the public about science and research and improving the link between research institutes of universities and industries.
One of its major focus areas is promoting research ethics. MoST attaches the highest priority to maintaining high standards of integrity, responsibility, and accountability in all research conducted in Ethiopia.
According to the national research ethics review guideline, the Ministry obligates that research with human subjects should be carried out only or strictly supervised by, suitably qualified and experienced investigators and in accordance with a protocol that clearly states the aim of the research, the reasons for proposing that involves human subjects, the nature and degree of any known risks to the subjects, the sources from which it is proposed to recruit subjects, and the means proposed for ensuring that subjects’ consent will be adequately informed and voluntary. The protocol should be scientifically and ethically appraised by one or more suitably constituted review bodies, independent of the investigators.
The guideline also makes it clear that it has an objective to safeguard the rights, values, and welfare of research participants through respecting the participants’ autonomy, protecting the participants from harm related to research, and ensuring that individual/community benefits and fairness are maintained.
While enabling conditions are provided for research and researchers, there are some unethical practices on the researchers such as, fabricating data, plagiarism, false conclusions that would lead to misinformation.
Even though, universities are currently encouraging research projects to reach the public, many researches are still left on shelves. This could be proved by the number of research projects the Ministry has practically on implementation. Since 2015, The MoST is supporting 56 research projects. This could be from the fact that relevant researches are not being conducted with the expected outcome.
Therefore, this issue is not supposed to be left only for MoST. Universities should take high responsibility on producing educated human resource that is capable of conducting researches based on the right ethics. What we are talking about is a an issue that would change the lives of many and if by any means information is cooked by a researcher the loss is unbearable.
BY HENOK TIBEBU
Wikipedia defines Digital Library as, “a special library with a collection of digital objects that can include text, visual material, audio material, video material, stored as electronic media formats (as opposed to print, or other media), along with means for organizing, storing, and retrieving the files and media contained in the library collection.”
Traditional libraries service largely printed materials, which are expensive and bulky; and exponential advance in information technologies is forcing libraries to redesign their services to satisfy the dynamic service platform and information needs of users.
As one of the main features of digital libraries is efficient delivery of information (knowledge) economically to all users, it (potentially) provides a huge and paramount benefit to developing countries.
“Digital library in Ethiopia is at a pilot stage. It has been at play for at least 10 years, albeit in a teeter-totter manner as it was donors-driven and when the money ran out, the work stops”, says Fisseha Yitagesu, Director of Science, Technology and Information Center.
The Center - which is setup with the aim of collecting and organizing science and technology information and disseminate them to the public, industries and research institutes by adding value to them - have been operational for four years now. And one of the projects incubated by the Center in this regard is the development of a national digital library.
With its vision of building up the national digital library as a national knowledge asset and a key driving force for education, research, innovation, and knowledge economy, the Center is expecting that the initiative will promote the research activities in our country.
In a sense of being effective and cost benefit, Fisseha believes that there is no choice but to cooperate in procuring books and scientific and research journals through a single center, and make them available to every universities, scholars and students and wide range of community in Ethiopia. “And the goal is to make the national digital library a platform to such end.” He also adds that the platform provides opportunities to attend issues like plagiarism, and reduce
duplication of works.
According to him, the project is in an experiment phase, where it has already more than 1.2 contents available to be accessed and downloaded. The plan is to initiate a meeting with the relevant stakeholders (universities et al.) to flash out the project with them, and after a month, the project will be officially launched, he adds.
Till then, the project will be platformed through two strategies, namely through the use of the Ministry of Education’s 'Education and Research Network (EthERNet)' – a local network that link universities without the need of internet access, and through a mobile app. “To this end, we are working with most of them, including the Ministry of Education, library consortium to make books, journals be accessible to them. Knowledge should be added and disseminated, and our goal is to build a huge collection and create interlink between various universities.”
In addition to collecting, digitized and uploading hard copy resources and materials from 33 universities, the library will also collect and digitize rare collections of materials from long aged libraries museums and archives.
“We have seen many digital libraries in Africa, and I have to say that our start is impressive given that it is a feat to collect 1.2 million contents in this time frame” the Director said, and shares his belief that if it can be maintained and build on it, “we will have one of the continent’s top digital libraries”.
According to Nardos Girma, the digital library brings many benefits to a developing country like Ethiopia. As to her, it will help not only in making materials, sources, references and high-quality networked information resources accessible to researchers involved in research and development activities in the country, but it also helps in providing value added science and technology information and in solving lack of reading materials and resources.
She also points out to the opportunities to be exploited to establish a national digital library, such as latecomers advantages, and the existence of pre-established digital libraries in different universities, which she said will help to get well organized books and research materials.
There are of course challenges that loom on the project involving issues like Intellectual Property Rights (IPR), control over information by copyright holder, technological obsolescence of formats, devices and medium, among others.
All in all, digital libraries are seen as the hope for developing countries in their struggle to access scientific and academic publications, despite the fact that it is a real challenge for them. Therefore, it is imperative for Ethiopia, to mature the already works done to setup a national digital library, given its potential help for the country, by creating its own dedicated team and employing a consistent and sustainable book collection, metadata extraction and uploading methods.
BY ROBEL YOHANNES
Africa though is a source of abundant renewable hydroelectric power; surprisingly the supply of electricity within the continent is still poor. The Continent, blessed with greatest rivers, such as Abay, Zaire and Limpopo, and a wealth of different potential energy sources, is still yelling for electricity and in short supply of electrical energy. Notably, a few African countries are in rapid growth and industrial development. However, they could not fully meet the demand of the power the economy requires.
To end this, Africa is now exploring and promoting the use of its renewable energy sources, mainly water, wind, sun power, and geothermal resources. In fact, to detach hundreds of millions of Africans who live in the darkness through utilizing these resources, it requires the highest political commitment of the governments.
That is why the Nile Basin countries have brought the Nile Basin Initiative 12 years ago with the aim of developing the Nile River for sustainable and equitable access to the water.
Member states have set their own goals in their Cooperative Framework. In line of this, generating sustainable energy supply and creating cross-border hydropower linkages within member states are few among the many goals stated in the Framework. This in turn, would create an opportunity for member countries to sell electricity and generate foreign currency. It would also assist neighboring countries lessen their power shortages.
Further than these economic advantages, it will bolster sustainable trade linkages among countries, build up trust and will enhance the culture of working together for common development. Thus, it is significant for Ethiopia as well as other countries to create a promising future and strengthening the linkage. The Nile Cooperation Framework member countries also made deliberations on the next practical application.
In line with this and realize the set goals, various projects are being implemented by the Cooperative Framework in relation to capacity building and technical support, technology transfer and financial cooperation, and modernizing water management policy.
In the Nile Basin Initiative, Executive Director of the Eastern Nile Technical, Regional Office (ENTRO), Fekahmed Negash, said among the many activities the Forum carried out in the past 12 years, ensuring the sustainability of water and food security, addressing the impact of climate change and cross border water management are few.
The Forums, according to Water, Irrigation and Electricity Minister Dr. Sileshi Bekele, have paved ways for the Nile Basin Cooperative Framework Easter African countries to exchange experiences on electricity, downstream development, water management and utilization of the river equitably.
Activities are also on progress to create institutional system that coordinates and manages issues that may rise on the Nile River.
While six of the Nile Basin countries have signed the Nile Basin Initiative Cooperative Framework Agreement, three are still in the process. When all approve it, better activities would be carried out through establishing joint commission, the Minister hopes.
In turn, the Nile Basin countries will have the opportunity to develop the resource in more sustainable and equitable manner and ensure their benefits.
According to Dr. Engineer Sileshi Ethiopia, apart from generating power from the Great Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD), is working to mitigate climate change through increasing the amount of rainfall in the East Africa. This will play a decisive role in reducing the level of evaporation caused by rising temperatures in Egypt and Sudan.
The International Water Management Institute Researcher Matthew McCartney also said that the GERD would ensure water security through monitoring the flow of the Abay water which is highly dependent on rainwater and sustaining the same flow during the summer or winter season. This in turn has significant advantage for the lower riparian countries, and secures the countries from the effects of flood on rainy seasons.
The Nile Basin Cooperative Forum studied various collaborative projects, and electricity trade is one among the others. In line with this, practical activities have already commenced to begin trade of power in the Eastern Nile, particularly among Ethiopia, Egypt and the Sudan.
The Renaissance Dam, apart from generating enough power, would have crucial roles in securing the basin countries from flood. In earlier times, Sudan and Egypt were over flooded caused by high level of Abay's water in rainy seasons. As a result, human life was lost and properties damaged. Especially, Sudan has to spend hundreds of millions of dollars annually to sweep silts from dams, canals and farmings. The GERD, in this regard, has the potential to erode up to 90 percent of the silt. Equally, Ethiopia's natural resource conservation works have greater benefit to mitigate this problem through blocking silts from entering into the dam.
The GERD, which is the greatest Dam in Africa, when finalized, is expected to generate 6,000 megawatts of electricity annually. Though it is said that it will be completed within seven years time, at the end of its sixth year, the construction has reached 65 percent. Even, most of its basic part is said to have been completed.
Most of the region’s populations are living in poverty. Climate change is also the biggest challenge. To cope with these challenges, the countries need to develop the water cooperatively and in equitable manner. Particularly, for the river basin countries, as it has been repeatedly expressed, utilizing the River equitably, cooperatively and with shared goals is the only alternative. It is also indicated that the Nile River, which had not been used up to date, is of great potential to the countries to fulfill the basic needs of their citizens and expand infrastructure.
The Agreement, established based on the social and economic needs of the basin countries, has been undertaking activities with the goals of benefiting those citizens whose livelihood is dependent on the River, safeguarding water sources, protecting from harm, and developing them. However, to efficiently exploit the resource, the cooperation among basin countries should be further strengthened.
It is a known fact that our planet is getting warmer from time to time causing a substantial impact around the globe. As many agreed, human's activities are the primary cause to it.
Hence to address the change and mitigate its harsh consequences, various activities have been carried out in sense of urgency. Failure to take immediate steps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, as experts point out, will make stabilizing atmospheric concentrations extremely difficult in the future and will greatly exacerbate the impacts of global warming.
Developing nations including Ethiopia are now facing the impacts of climate change even if they have less or almost no contribution to the emissions.
Ethiopia used to face massive drought and food insecurity crisis due to such climate change threats repeatedly. with the recent El Niño induced drought the worst in the nation’s 50 years history. This is mainly due to the fact that the livelihoods of millions were in danger due to it.
According to the Environmental Policy of Ethiopia, smallholder peasant agriculture, in some areas including forestry in the nation, is the dominant sector accounting for about 45 percent of the GDP, 85 percent of exports and over 80 percent of total employment. Agriculture has been often affected by recurrent drought, natural resource degradation, and poor infrastructure.
Renewable natural resources, that is land, water, forests and trees as well as other forms of biodiversity, which meet the basic needs for food, water, clothing and shelter, have now deteriorated to a low level of productivity. In many areas of Ethiopia, the present consumption of wood is in excess of unaided natural sustainable production, according to the policy document.
The burning of dung as fuel instead of using it as a soil conditioner is considered to cause a reduction in grain production by some 550,000 tons annually. Many times accelerated soil erosion caused a progressive annual loss in grain production estimated at to about 40,000 tons, which unless arrested, will reach about 170,000 tons, as reports from 2010 indicates.
According to an abstract from Pubic citizen under the topic Climate Change: The Urgency, Impacts, and Solutions, the Earth is expected to warm by approximately 2-6 degree centigrade or 3.6-10.8 degree fahrenheit in the next century which would melt the ice land and expand warm water. As a result, sea levels are predicted to rise approximately by about 4 inches to 3 feet. In addition to flooding due to the rising sea levels, coastal areas will experience more severe storms and surges due to warmer ocean temperatures. General climate patterns are also expected to change, with increases and decreases in precipitation, the abstract further noted.
Meanwhile, scholars and scientists in the environmental stream often underline that the effects of global warming depend largely upon the energy path we take and reversing measures needs to be taken by nations in the world. And all stakeholders should give primary attention to finding alternative means of producing and transporting electricity.
Many nations including Ethiopia are now eyeing to the implementation of Climate resilient green economy and towards creating alternative sources of energy to have no pollution and threat to the environment. That is why Ethiopia is focusing on such a safe path. As part of this, there is huge mass mobilization in the nation to planting seedlings and engaging on natural conservation tasks in a mass mobilized form as part of nation's environmental protection and conservation strategy.
Natural Science Expert Meseret Yohnasses believes that there needs to be integrated natural resource conservation tasks in the nation in an integrated and on a continuous basis to improve the livelihood of various bio-diversities and enhance farmers productivity in return.
Tiruneh Girma who is also a senior practitioner in the stream said that irrigation activity, biodiversity works and seeding plantation are parts of natural conservation tasks that are done at a national level with due attention in various places across the nation.
It is good to introduce best preserving practices in the area which have shown amazing results in other places to protect the land, water and soil so as to enhance farmers productivity and protect the environment and the ecosystems from pollution, he said.
Indigenous trees and plants are now growing due to the natural forest conversation tasks in different states in the nation and now farmers are getting improved productivity after the implementation of natural conservation works and mobilizations, the practitioner stated.
Planting trees is not just a one-time event that people will stop them at times. It is connected to the life of human beings as far as people are alive to keep the balance of nature and protect the ecosystem. And nations in the world should be concerned about the future of the planet and to the wellbeing of the next generation.
BY YARED GEBREMEDEN
Among the multifaceted achievements of the country, the year 2011 marked as nodal point in Ethiopia’s economic development strategy. In fact, it denoted a decisive paradigm shift from the country’s conventional development strategy to climate resilient green economic development. This was a bold initiative that was taken by Ethiopia after a detailed research on the state of affairs of the country’s economic situation through time.
Ethiopia formulated the Climate Resilient Green Economy (CRGE) Strategy primarily because of several factors. These included because fossil fuel based energy utilization proved to be not only expensive taking away a huge amount of the country’s net income but also because it contributed to the escalation pollution particularly in the urban centers of the country.
Apart from its national significance as a viable and sustainable economic strategy, the strategy is already contributing to Africa’s regional development strategy as it is envisaged in Agenda 2063 and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) which was deliberated on various UN sponsored forums.
The designing of the strategy was made under the back drop of alarming climatic and eco system degradation the country faced on annual recurrence. Suffice it to mention the devastating effects of the 1974, 1884-85 and the drought situation of the year 2000.
The CRGE is a strategy that is designed as a major content of Ethiopia’s vision to become a middle income country by 2025. The rapid increase in green house gas emissions which was expected to increase in triple by 2030 from the level it was in 2010, coupled with the recurrent drought and irresponsible use of natural resources and heavy dependence on fossil fuel locked the economy from progressive development.
Ethiopia’s economic development programme was redesigned based on agricultural modernization which would promote livestock and food production, effectively protecting and reestablishing the forest resource of the country, developing renewable energy resources to produce electric power for expansion of industries.
In general, the significance of the CRGE strategy of Ethiopia is based on turning the natural capital into other forms of capital without negatively interfering into the natural balance of the eco system but in fact contributing to the natural balance of nature.
Since 2010, the country had embarked on developing renewable energy resources from hydropower, wind farms, geothermal sources and solar energy projects. The countries of the Horn of Africa including Sudan, Djibouti are already getting a substantial amount of electricity while a grid system is already in progress to provide electric power for Kenya and possibly for Rwanda and South Sudan. This is in line with Ethiopia’s regional power development strategy of networking Africa with hydroelectric power grid to contribute her part in Agenda 2063 and IGAD’s vision of economic development for the Horn of Africa.
In terms of fighting global warming through participatory national soil and water conservation campaigns, every year, more than a 30 million of the population in rural areas of the country are engaged in massive rehabilitation of degraded lands and mountain ranges of the country. As this campaign is conducted every year, Ethiopia, through the CRGE strategy is making commendable contributions in reversing the hazards of climate change way before the international community has started taking actions in the area.
As the result of the implementation of the CRGE strategy, Ethiopia’s general forest coverage has grown from 4% in the early 70s and 80s to about 14% to date. The participatory nature of campaigns on forestry is in fact a new approach by Ethiopia that has set an example for the rest of Africa.
As part of the CRGE strategy, Ethiopia has already developed a light railway urban transport service in Addis Ababa and the ultra modern electric railway line linking Ethiopia and Djibouti has already started operation. New railway project linking Ethiopia, Sudan and Egypt has already been proposed by the leaders of the three countries promoting mutual economic benefit for the countries.
The Addis Ababa–Djibouti Railway is a new standard gauge international railway that serves as the backbone of the new Ethiopian National Railway Network. It provides landlocked Ethiopia with access to the sea, linking Ethiopia's capital of Addis Ababa with Djibouti and its Port of Doraleh. More than 95% of Ethiopia's trade passes through Djibouti, accounting for 70% of the activity at the Port of Djibouti.
The total railway capacity is 24.9 million tonnes of freight annually, with 6 million tonnes annually expected in 2023. These plans are accompanied by construction works at the Port of Doraleh to expand the cargo handling capacity from 6 to 14 million tonnes annually with the aim of reaching 10 million tonnes of cargo by 2022.
Ethiopia’s CRGE strategy is already paving the way for trade relations between the neighbouring countries by using the above mentioned transport networks that utilize hydroelectric power which is highly cost effective and efficient in terms of time and service.
The development of industrial and agro industrial parks is a new innovation that Ethiopia has introduced into Africa. For instance ,the Hawassa eco-industrial park which specializes in textile and apparel producing firms is the first of its kind in Africa using hydroelectric power and equipped with zero liquid discharge technology. Ethiopia’s manufacturing and agro industrial parks ( 12 in number so far) are export based and use modern technologies that are compliant to both regional and global environmental protection standards.
The comparative advantages in CRGE is demonstrated in its double prong importance in promoting food security through programmes like community based and participatory atmospheric carbon reduction projects has been supported by the World Bank and also in promoting rural health through the introduction of fuel efficient stoves and other rural technologies that would help to household health.
Waste to energy project that has been commissioned in Addis Ababa to generate electric power from dry wastes in the city is another new innovation that has been introduced for the first time in Africa.
One of the most conspicuous components of the CRGE is the development and modernization of the agriculture and health sector. The Ethiopian government deployed more than 30,000 agriculture and health extension workers to promote agricultural productivity and promotion of primary health care programmes in rural Ethiopia.
This is a new experience both in Africa and at the global level. As the result of the support provided to farmers, thousands of farmers were able not only to be food self sufficient but also managed to upscale their economic activities towards small scale investments in agro industry and small scale manufacturing. This was possible as the result of the support provided by the government in the context of the implementation of the CRGE strategy.
The agriculture extension programme focused on specialization, market orientation and diversification of agricultural production, maximization of the potentials of livestock, small scale irrigation and improved access to finance while the main focus of the health extension programme is hygiene and environmental sanitation, disease prevention and control, family health and health education and communication.
All the more, as the result of the introduction of the CRGE strategy Ethiopia has managed to become one of the fastest growing countries with a double digit economic growth for almost 15 years. In spite of the recurrent drought that has become a national challenge, Ethiopia has continued to effectively prove that the CRGE strategy has both national and global significance.
BY SOLOMON DIBABA
Throughout Ethiopia’s history, many Ethiopian women have contributed their shares for the social, economic and political makeup of the country, and have become icons to the present generation and the coming ones.
During times when women portrayed as inferior to men and supposed to fulfill merely domestic responsibilities, such as caring for children, preparing food, Ethiopian women, going beyond such domains and expectations, displayed patriotic commitments in various battlefields. Successively, they made significant differences in the country's historical and political platforms and have bestowed sovereignty to generation.
This is particularly true in the Battle of Adwa. Ethiopian women, taking part in various domains, (as head of the army in military operation, strategists, advisers, translators and as intelligence officers) have played a decisive role in the Victory against colonial aggressors.
Though, there is no precise estimate, according to historians, the average number of women who took part in the campaign of Adwa is estimated to be over 20, 000.
While the majority served in non-combat activities such as food preparation, nursing the wounded soldiers, and being a pillar of strength by uplifting the morale of the fighters through popular battle songs and poetry, a significant number of women served as soldiers, strategists, advisers, translators and intelligence officers.
Many chronicles of the war wrote that the role of women in intelligence work was key in Ethiopia's gaining the upper hand against fascist Italy. In this regard, women played a significant role in gathering information on the whereabouts of the enemy’s lines of combat.
Particularly, through the establishment of a team known as ‘Ye wust Arbegnoch’, women members helped provide soldiers with intelligence information as well as arms, ammunition food, clothing and medicine.
According to Tekle Tsadiq, band of women served their country by misleading enemy soldiers, displaying themselves from the hill top and shouting but disappearing suddenly from the site so that the site would be falsely targeted by the enemy.
At the top of these women, however, comes Empress Taitu. The Empress regarded as an intelligent, astute and self-assured woman by many had her own battalion, which she bravely commanded in the battlefield, fighting in the frontline and motivating men against retreat.
She also mobilized women, both as fighters and nurses of wounded soldiers. By receiving and analyzing intelligence information, she facilitated the catastrophic defeat of the Italian colonial army and the abortion of their ambition of establishing a colonial foothold in Ethiopia.
The Victory, beyond having a special place in the hearts and minds of Ethiopians, is a symbol of freedom for the entire black people. The Victory was an event that awakened the hope for emancipation and the struggle against colonialism and racism among Africans who were in the colonizers. And, most importantly, it was also a victory that saw the importance of women participation and contribution in defending their country from foreign aggressors.
The Battle of Adwa did not remain the only campaign where women fought in the front-line for their country. Rather countless heroines sacrificed their younger age and their lives in war fronts that the country confronted at various times.
It is a recent history that thousands of young women sacrificed their lives engaging in the armed struggle to overthrow the military junta.
Many are also exerting tremendous efforts in their field and are contributing their share for the development of the nation. Their contribution cannot be ignored.
Ethiopians, while we are commemorating the Victory of Adwa and marking International Women Day, we have to remember and glorify hundreds of thousands of the posthumous heroines and give recognition to the living influential ones.
ADDIS ABABA — Lake of integration among respective authorities and limited public awareness are exacerbating the violation of road safety and regulations in the Capital, panel underscored.
During a panel discussion jointly organized by Fana Broadcasting Corporate and the Addis Ababa City Roads Authority entitled; ‘The Role of the Society and Stakeholders,’ City Government Road and Transport Bureau Head Dr. Solomon Kidane stated that illegal closure of roads is becoming worse which in turn leads to overcrowded and traffic accidents.
Road infrastructure is the pillar for the development of a given nation in which the Bureau is striving to expand, however, improper and illegal use of roadsides by some individuals and organizations are challenging Bureau's activities, Dr. Solomon added. destructed
Northern Addis Ababa Region Roads Resource Administration Director with the Authority Inspector Ismael Seid for his part said that though road infrastructure is expanding in the Capital, improper use of the road becomes a problem.
“Lack of communication between the Authority and stakeholders as well as lack of awareness in the sides of the community are problems among others which affect the safety of roads,” according to the Director.
Violation of road rules is becoming worse and the gap begins from the regulation itself in which the law is unclear and fines for violators is soft, Law Service Director Fasil Belete said.
Commander Seyoum Asfaw, representative of the Addis Ababa Police Commission also built on the same idea and stressed as the problem is getting worse. Contrary to their main purposes, city’s roads are currently used for car washing, garage, street vending, and construction purposes, he said.
Engineer Demelash Gebremariam, Deputy Head of the Authority said that the Authority is working to revise the regulation. However, as penalties would not be the solution, everyone should give due attention to curb the problem.
BY DARGIE KAHSAY
ADDIS ABABA - Ministry say that a strong national technological, innovation capability is essential to make the currently prevailing economic growth sustainable.
Director of Policy Research and Future Planning with Ministry of Science and Technology Desta Abera said that fast grown countries experiences show that successful economic and social development came from having both an export-based market economy and accumulation of technological capabilities, which indicates that Ethiopia must focus on Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) to support its export driven economy.
Ethiopia's implementation of innovation policy targets at establishing a clear and effective STI governance structure, building technological capacity in learning, adapting, and utilizing effective foreign technologies, as well as producing well-trained technicians, engineers and scientists.
As one of the critical policy and strategy issue, technology transfer activities currently carried out in the country are not in line with the envisaged technology demands of the development programs, the Director claims. He added that the level of qualified manpower capable of transferring foreign technology is low, and inadequate to facilitate the effective transfer of technology.
Moreover, he mentioned that manufacturing and service providing institutions, whose involvement ranges from conducting and supporting research and technology transfer activities to contributing and implementing the policy framework, have no clear value-adding linkages between them and their role in advancing the STI.
Universities, research institutes, TVET institutions and industries are core actors in the national innovation system. The strength as well as effectiveness of the established linkages among these institutions largely depends on their tendency and capability to be involved in activities dealing with technology transfer.
As far as technology learning is concerned, the current situation of the country confirms that universities are not taking the leading role and are lagging behind the industries, Desta said.
He suggests for the linkages that exist among these actors to focus on contributing on the productivity of manufacturing and service providing enterprises. “The shared effort should also focus on identifying appropriate technologies and their sources, understanding the technologies through learning-by-doing and adaptation as well as effective utilization.”
Thus, joint cooperation and support system among the actors will be established with the aim to support and facilitate the search, selection, importation, adaptation and utilization of effective technology transfer, Desta added.
BY ROBEL YOHANNES
ADDIS ABABA - The current Ethio-China bilateral relation is a role model to the South-South cooperation, Chinese Ambassador to Ethiopia Tan Jian underscored.
As strategic and comprehensive partner of Ethiopia, China firmly supports Ethiopia’s industrialization development in both agriculture and industry sector, he said.
Since 2001, China has been contributing to Ethiopia's development plans through sending agricultural instructors in the program of China Agricultural Technical Vocational Education, besides to the commitment of Chinese companies in the construction of industrial parks, railways and other infrastructural development, according to him.
Speaking at the opening ceremony of the Second international Agro-industry Investment Forum, the Ambassador said that China calls itself developing country, and the key areas it has been working with Ethiopia are how to develop and reduce the level of poverty, ways to upgrading to the middle income economies, investment and industrialization are among others.
“No doubt free trade is good. But, if trade is not handled hand in hand with investment and industrialization, developing countries will remain as raw material and commodity providers at a very low price at the global value chain. This is of course, not fair. The developing countries should intensify their integration with the global value chain and move up.”
China firmly supports the industrialization process of developing countries. Industrialization plays an important role in eliminating poverty and promoting sustainable development. There is growing consensus on the need for the renewed efforts to facilitate sustainable industrialization as one of the main drivers of economic growth and structural transformation, the Ambassador added.
As part of the support to such development in the developing countries, China has contributed 20 million USD to the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) during the period 2013-2016. For the period 2017 to 2021, China will make an additional 24 million. With the new approach called Program for Country Partnership, UNIDO currently focuses on exploring new series models based on investment promotion.
China supports UNIDO to conduct Programme for Countries Cooperation pilots in Ethiopia and other African countries with the contribution of 18 million USD for the first and Second International Agro-industry Investment Forums.
He also said that the most important of all, China is implementing the belt and road initiative. Observing the principles of openness, inclusiveness, transparency guided by the ideas of planning together, building together and benefiting together, it has been working to achieve policy, infrastructural trade, financing and people to people connectivity with the objective of building a community with a shared benefits and humanity.
BY HAFTU GEBREZGABIHER